You need to create a module per command and define the fields using defstruct:

defmodule OpenAccount do
  @enforce_keys [:account_number]
  defstruct [:account_number, :initial_balance]

A command must contain a field to uniquely identify the aggregate instance (e.g. account_number). Use @enforce_keys to force the identity field to be specified when creating the command struct.

Since commands are just plain Elixir structs you can use a library such as typed_struct for defining structs, fields with their types, and enforcing mandatory keys without writing too much boilerplate code.

Commanded logs commands during execution when using debug log level. To prevent sensitive data from being exposed in logs you can use the built-in Elixir Inspect module to exclude fields.

defmodule RegisterUser do
  @derive {Inspect, only: [:id, :name]}
  defstruct [:id, :name, :password]

Command dispatch and routing

A router module is used to route commands to their registered command handler and aggregate module.

You create a router module using Commanded.Commands.Router and register each command with its associated handler:

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  dispatch OpenAccount, to: OpenAccountHandler, aggregate: BankAccount, identity: :account_number
  dispatch DepositMoney, to: DepositMoneyHandler, aggregate: BankAccount, identity: :account_number

This can be more succinctly configured by excluding command handlers and dispatching directly to the aggregate, using multi-command registration, and with the identify helper macro:

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  identify BankAccount, by: :account_number
  dispatch [OpenAccount, DepositMoney], to: BankAccount

A router must be registered with its associated application using the router macro, as shown below:

defmodule BankApp do
  use Commanded.Application, otp_app: :bank_app

  router BankRouter

Command handlers

A command handler receives the aggregate and the command being executed. It allows you to validate, authorize, and/or enrich the command with additional data before executing the appropriate aggregate module function.

The command handler must implement the Commanded.Commands.Handler behaviour consisting of a single handle/2 function. It receives the aggregate state and the command to be handled. It must return the raised domain events from the aggregate. It may return an {:error, reason} tuple on failure. The handle/2 function is executed in the same process as the aggregate itself and is therefore within the consistency boundary of the aggregate. In effect, there is no essential difference between using the handle/2 function in a command handler module vs. the execute/2 function in the aggregate module aside from organization of your source code.

defmodule OpenAccountHandler do
  @behaviour Commanded.Commands.Handler

  def handle(%BankAccount{} = aggregate, %OpenAccount{} = command) do
    %OpenAccount{account_number: account_number, initial_balance: initial_balance} = command

    BankAccount.open_account(aggregate, account_number, initial_balance)

Command handlers execute in the context of the dispatch call, as such they are limited to the timeout period specified. The default timeout is five seconds, the same as a GenServer call. You can increase the timeout value for individual commands as required - see the section on Timeouts below.

Dispatch directly to aggregate

It is also possible to route a command directly to an aggregate, without requiring an intermediate command handler.

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  # will route to `BankAccount.execute/2`
  dispatch OpenAccount, to: BankAccount, identity: :account_number

By default, the aggregate module's execute/2 function will be called with the aggregate's state and the command to execute. Using this approach, you will create an execute/2 clause that pattern-matches on each command that the aggregate should handle.

Alternatively, you may specify the name of a function (also receiving both the aggregate state and the command) on your aggregate module to which the command will be dispatched:

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  # Will route to `BankAccount.open_account/2`
  dispatch OpenAccount, to: BankAccount, function: :open_account, identity: :account_number

Dispatching commands

You dispatch a command to its registered aggregate using the application:

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(%OpenAccount{account_number: "ACC123", initial_balance: 1_000})

Optionally, you can dispatch a command using the router by providing the application as an option:

command = %OpenAccount{account_number: "ACC123", initial_balance: 1_000}

:ok = BankRouter.dispatch(command, application: BankApp)

Define aggregate identity

You can define the identity field for an aggregate once using the identify macro. The configured identity will be used for all commands registered to the aggregate, unless overridden by a command registration.


defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  identify BankAccount, by: :account_number

  dispatch OpenAccount, to: BankAccount

The above configuration requires that all commands for the BankAccount aggregate must contain an account_number field used to identity a unique instance.

Identity prefix

An optional identity prefix can be used to distinguish between different aggregates that would otherwise share the same identity. As an example you might have a User and a UserPreferences aggregate that you wish to share the same identity. In this scenario you should specify a prefix for each aggregate (e.g. "user-" and "user-preference-").

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  identify BankAccount,
    by: :account_number,
    prefix: "bank-account-"

  dispatch OpenAccount, to: BankAccount

The prefix is used as the stream identity when appending, and reading, the aggregate's events (e.g. <prefix><instance_identity>). Note you must not change the stream prefix once you have events persisted in your event store, otherwise the aggregate's events cannot be read from the event store and its state cannot be rebuilt since the stream name will be different.

Custom aggregate identity

Any module that implements the String.Chars protocol can be used for an aggregate's identity. By default this includes the following Elixir built-in types: strings, integers, floats, atoms, and lists.

You can define your own custom identity modules and implement the String.Chars protocol for them:

defmodule AccountNumber do
  defstruct [:branch, :account_number]

  defimpl String.Chars do
    def to_string(%AccountNumber{branch: branch, account_number: account_number}),
      do: branch <> ":" <> account_number

The custom identity will be converted to a string during command dispatch. This is used as the aggregate's identity and determines the stream to append its events in the event store.

open_account = %OpenAccount{
  account_number: %AccountNumber{branch: "B1", account_number: "ACC123"},
  initial_balance: 1_000

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(open_account)


A command handler has a default timeout of 5 seconds. The same default as a GenServer process call. It must handle the command in this period, otherwise the call fails and the caller exits.

You can configure a different timeout value during command registration by providing a timeout option, defined in milliseconds:

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  # Configure a timeout of 1 second for the open account command handler
  dispatch OpenAccount,
    to: OpenAccountHandler,
    aggregate: BankAccount,
    identity: :account_number,
    timeout: 1_000

You can override the timeout value during command dispatch. This example is dispatching the open account command with a timeout of 2 seconds:

open_account = %OpenAccount{account_number: "ACC123", initial_balance: 1_000}

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(open_account, timeout: 2_000)

Multi-command registration

Command routers support multi command registration so you can group related command handlers into the same module:

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  dispatch [OpenAccount,CloseAccount],
    to: BankAccountHandler,
    aggregate: BankAccount,
    identity: :account_number

Command dispatch consistency guarantee

You can choose the consistency guarantee when dispatching a command.

  • Strong consistency offers up-to-date data but at the cost of high latency.
  • Eventual consistency offers low latency but read model queries may reply with stale data since they may not have processed the persisted events.

In Commanded, the available options during command dispatch are:

  • :eventual (default) - don't block command dispatch and don't wait for any event handlers, regardless of their own consistency configuration.

    :ok = BankApp.dispatch(command)
    :ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, consistency: :eventual)
  • :strong - block command dispatch until all strongly consistent event handlers and process managers have successfully processed all events created by the command.

    :ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, consistency: :strong)

    Dispatching a command using :strong consistency but without any strongly consistent event handlers configured will have no effect.

  • Provide an explicit list of event handler and process manager modules (or their configured names), containing only those handlers you'd like to wait for. No other handlers will be awaited on, regardless of their own configured consistency setting.

    :ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, consistency: [ExampleHandler, AnotherHandler])
    :ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, consistency: ["ExampleHandler", "AnotherHandler"])

    Note you cannot opt-in to strong consistency for a handler that has been configured as eventually consistent.

Which consistency guarantee should I use?

When dispatching a command using consistency: :strong the dispatch will block until all of the strongly consistent event handlers and process managers have handled all events created by the command. This guarantees that when you receive the :ok response from dispatch, your strongly consistent read models will have been updated and can safely be queried.

Strong consistency helps to alleviate problems and workarounds you would otherwise encounter when dealing with eventual consistency in your own application. Use :strong consistency when you want to query a read model immediately after dispatching a command. You must also configure the event handler to use :strong consistency.

Using :eventual consistency, or omitting the consistency option, will cause the command dispatch to immediately return without waiting for any event handlers or process managers. The handlers run independently, and asynchronously, in the background, therefore you will need to deal with potentially stale read model data.

Configure default consistency

You may override the default consistency (:eventual) by setting default_consistency in environment config (e.g. config/config.exs):

config :commanded, default_consistency: :strong

This will effect command dispatch, event handlers, and process managers where a consistency is not explicitly defined.

Consistency failures

By opting-in to strong consistency you may encounter an additional error reply from command dispatch:

case BankApp.dispatch(command, consistency: :strong) do
  :ok -> # ... all ok
  {:error, :consistency_timeout} -> # command ok, handlers have not yet executed

Receiving an {:error, :consistency_timeout} error indicates the command successfully dispatched, but some or all of the strongly consistent event handlers have not yet executed.

The default timeout is configured as five seconds; this determines how long the dispatch will block waiting for the handlers. You can override the default value in your environment config file (e.g. config/config.exs):

config :commanded,
  dispatch_consistency_timeout: 10_000  # ten seconds

Dispatch returning execution result

You can choose to include the execution result as part of the dispatch result by setting include_execution_result true:

    aggregate_uuid: aggregate_uuid,
    aggregate_version: aggregate_version,
    events: events,
    metadata: metadata
} = BankApp.dispatch(command, include_execution_result: true)

This is useful if you need to get information from the events produced by the aggregate.

Dispatch returning aggregate version

You can optionally choose to include the aggregate's version as part of the dispatch result by setting the include_aggregate_version option to true:

{:ok, aggregate_version} = BankApp.dispatch(command, include_aggregate_version: true)

This is useful when you need to wait for an event handler, such as a read model projection, to be up-to-date before continuing execution or querying its data.

Correlation and causation ids

To assist with monitoring and debugging your deployed application it is useful to track the causation and correlation ids for your commands and events.

  • causation_id - the UUID of the command causing an event, or the event causing a command dispatch.
  • correlation_id - a UUID used to correlate related commands/events.

You can set causation and correlation ids when dispatching a command:

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, causation_id: UUID.uuid4(), correlation_id: UUID.uuid4())

When dispatching a command in an event handler, you should copy these values from the event your are processing:

defmodule ExampleHandler do  
  use Commanded.Event.Handler,
    application: ExampleApp,
    name: "ExampleHandler"

  def handle(%AnEvent{..}, %{event_id: causation_id, correlation_id: correlation_id}) do
    command = %ExampleCommand{..}

      causation_id: causation_id,
      correlation_id: correlation_id,

Commands dispatched by a process manager will be automatically assigned the appropriate causation and correlation ids from the source domain event.

You can use Commanded audit middleware to record every dispatched command. This allows you to follow the chain of commands and events by using the causation id. The correlation id can be used to find all related commands and events.

Event metadata

It's helpful for debugging to have additional metadata associated with events issued by a command. You can set it when dispatching a command:

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(command, metadata: %{"issuer_id" => issuer_id, "user_id" => ""})

Note, due metadata serialization you should expect that only: strings, numbers, and boolean values are preserved; any other value will be converted to a string.

You should always use string keys in your metadata map; atom keys will be converted to strings.

Aggregate lifespan

By default an aggregate instance process will run indefinitely once started. You can control this by implementing the Commanded.Aggregates.AggregateLifespan behaviour in a module.

Define a module that implements the Commanded.Aggregates.AggregateLifespan behaviour:

defmodule BankAccountLifespan do
  @behaviour Commanded.Aggregates.AggregateLifespan

  def after_event(%MoneyDeposited{}), do: :timer.hours(1)
  def after_event(%BankAccountClosed{}), do: :stop
  def after_event(_event), do: :infinity

  def after_command(%CloseAccount{}), do: :stop
  def after_command(_command), do: :infinity

  def after_error(:invalid_initial_balance), do: :timer.minutes(5)
  def after_error(_error), do: :stop

Then specify the module as the lifespan option when registering the command in the router.

defmodule BankRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  dispatch [OpenAccount,CloseAccount],
    to: BankAccount,
    lifespan: BankAccountLifespan,
    identity: :account_number

The inactivity timeout is specified in milliseconds, after which time the aggregate process will be stopped if no other messages are received.

Return :stop or {:stop, reason} to immediately shutdown the aggregate process. Return :infinity to prevent the aggregate instance from shutting down.

You can also return :hibernate and the process is hibernated, it will continue its loop once a message is in its message queue. Hibernating an aggregate causes garbage collection and minimises the memory used by the process. Hibernating should not be used aggressively as too much time could be spent garbage collecting.


Allows a command router to define middleware modules that are executed before and after success or failure of each command dispatch.

This provides an extension point to add in command validation, authorization, logging, and other behaviour that you want to be called for every command the router dispatches.

defmodule BankingRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.Router

  middleware CommandLogger
  middleware MyCommandValidator
  middleware AuthorizeCommand

  identify BankAccount, by: :account_number

  dispatch OpenAccount, to: OpenAccountHandler, aggregate: BankAccount
  dispatch DepositMoney, to: DepositMoneyHandler, aggregate: BankAccount

The middleware modules are executed in the order they’ve been defined. They will receive a Commanded.Middleware.Pipeline struct containing the command being dispatched.

Example middleware

Implement the Commanded.Middleware behaviour in your module and define the before_dispatch, after_dispatch, and after_failure callback functions.

defmodule NoOpMiddleware do
  @behaviour Commanded.Middleware

  alias Commanded.Middleware.Pipeline
  import Pipeline

  def before_dispatch(%Pipeline{} = pipeline) do

  def after_dispatch(%Pipeline{} = pipeline) do

  def after_failure(%Pipeline{} = pipeline) do

Commanded provides a Commanded.Middleware.Logger middleware for logging the name of each dispatched command and its execution duration.

Composite command routers

You can use the Commanded.Commands.CompositeRouter macro to define a router comprised of other router modules. This approach is useful if you prefer to construct a router per context and then combine them together to form a top level application router.

By using Commanded.Commands.CompositeRouter in your own module you can include other routers via the router macro:

defmodule ApplicationRouter do
  use Commanded.Commands.CompositeRouter

  router BankAccountRouter
  router MoneyTransferRouter
defmodule BankApp do
  use Commanded.Application, otp_app: :bank_app

  router ApplicationRouter

Command dispatch works the same as any other router:

:ok = BankApp.dispatch(%OpenAccount{account_number: "ACC123", initial_balance: 1_000})