Stream (Elixir v1.12.0-dev) View Source

Functions for creating and composing streams.

Streams are composable, lazy enumerables (for an introduction on enumerables, see the Enum module). Any enumerable that generates elements one by one during enumeration is called a stream. For example, Elixir's Range is a stream:

iex> range = 1..5
1..5
iex> Enum.map(range, &(&1 * 2))
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

In the example above, as we mapped over the range, the elements being enumerated were created one by one, during enumeration. The Stream module allows us to map the range, without triggering its enumeration:

iex> range = 1..3
iex> stream = Stream.map(range, &(&1 * 2))
iex> Enum.map(stream, &(&1 + 1))
[3, 5, 7]

Note that we started with a range and then we created a stream that is meant to multiply each element in the range by 2. At this point, no computation was done. Only when Enum.map/2 is called we actually enumerate over each element in the range, multiplying it by 2 and adding 1. We say the functions in Stream are lazy and the functions in Enum are eager.

Due to their laziness, streams are useful when working with large (or even infinite) collections. When chaining many operations with Enum, intermediate lists are created, while Stream creates a recipe of computations that are executed at a later moment. Let's see another example:

1..3
|> Enum.map(&IO.inspect(&1))
|> Enum.map(&(&1 * 2))
|> Enum.map(&IO.inspect(&1))
1
2
3
2
4
6
#=> [2, 4, 6]

Note that we first printed each element in the list, then multiplied each element by 2 and finally printed each new value. In this example, the list was enumerated three times. Let's see an example with streams:

stream = 1..3
|> Stream.map(&IO.inspect(&1))
|> Stream.map(&(&1 * 2))
|> Stream.map(&IO.inspect(&1))
Enum.to_list(stream)
1
2
2
4
3
6
#=> [2, 4, 6]

Although the end result is the same, the order in which the elements were printed changed! With streams, we print the first element and then print its double. In this example, the list was enumerated just once!

That's what we meant when we said earlier that streams are composable, lazy enumerables. Note that we could call Stream.map/2 multiple times, effectively composing the streams and keeping them lazy. The computations are only performed when you call a function from the Enum module.

Like with Enum, the functions in this module work in linear time. This means that, the time it takes to perform an operation grows at the same rate as the length of the list. This is expected on operations such as Stream.map/2. After all, if we want to traverse every element on a stream, the longer the stream, the more elements we need to traverse, and the longer it will take.

Creating Streams

There are many functions in Elixir's standard library that return streams, some examples are:

This module also provides many convenience functions for creating streams, like Stream.cycle/1, Stream.unfold/2, Stream.resource/3 and more.

Note the functions in this module are guaranteed to return enumerables. Since enumerables can have different shapes (structs, anonymous functions, and so on), the functions in this module may return any of those shapes and this may change at any time. For example, a function that today returns an anonymous function may return a struct in future releases.

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Chunks the enum by buffering elements for which fun returns the same value.

Shortcut to chunk_every(enum, count, count).

Streams the enumerable in chunks, containing count elements each, where each new chunk starts step elements into the enumerable.

Chunks the enum with fine grained control when every chunk is emitted.

Creates a stream that enumerates each enumerable in an enumerable.

Creates a stream that enumerates the first argument, followed by the second.

Creates a stream that cycles through the given enumerable, infinitely.

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are different from the last emitted element.

Creates a stream that only emits elements if the result of calling fun on the element is different from the (stored) result of calling fun on the last emitted element.

Lazily drops the next n elements from the enumerable.

Creates a stream that drops every nth element from the enumerable.

Lazily drops elements of the enumerable while the given function returns a truthy value.

Executes the given function for each element.

Creates a stream that filters elements according to the given function on enumeration.

Maps the given fun over enumerable and flattens the result.

Lazily intersperses intersperse_element between each element of the enumeration.

Creates a stream that emits a value after the given period n in milliseconds.

Injects the stream values into the given collectable as a side-effect.

Emits a sequence of values, starting with start_value. Successive values are generated by calling next_fun on the previous value.

Creates a stream that will apply the given function on enumeration.

Creates a stream that will apply the given function on every nth element from the enumerable.

Creates a stream that will reject elements according to the given function on enumeration.

Returns a stream generated by calling generator_fun repeatedly.

Emits a sequence of values for the given resource.

Runs the given stream.

Creates a stream that applies the given function to each element, emits the result and uses the same result as the accumulator for the next computation. Uses the first element in the enumerable as the starting value.

Creates a stream that applies the given function to each element, emits the result and uses the same result as the accumulator for the next computation. Uses the given acc as the starting value.

Lazily takes the next count elements from the enumerable and stops enumeration.

Creates a stream that takes every nth element from the enumerable.

Lazily takes elements of the enumerable while the given function returns a truthy value.

Creates a stream that emits a single value after n milliseconds.

Transforms an existing stream.

Transforms an existing stream with function-based start and finish.

Emits a sequence of values for the given accumulator.

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are unique.

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are unique, by removing the elements for which function fun returned duplicate elements.

Creates a stream where each element in the enumerable will be wrapped in a tuple alongside its index.

Zips corresponding elements from a finite collection of enumerables into one stream of tuples.

Zips two enumerables together, lazily.

Lazily zips corresponding elements from a finite collection of enumerables into a new enumerable, transforming them with the zip_fun function as it goes.

Lazily zips corresponding elements from two enumerables into a new one, transforming them with the zip_fun function as it goes.

Link to this section Types

Specs

acc() :: any()

Specs

default() :: any()

Specs

element() :: any()

Specs

index() :: non_neg_integer()

Zero-based index.

Specs

timer() :: non_neg_integer() | :infinity

Link to this section Functions

Specs

chunk_by(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> any())) :: Enumerable.t()

Chunks the enum by buffering elements for which fun returns the same value.

Elements are only emitted when fun returns a new value or the enum finishes.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.chunk_by([1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 6, 7, 7], &(rem(&1, 2) == 1))
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[[1], [2, 2], [3], [4, 4, 6], [7, 7]]
Link to this function

chunk_every(enum, count)

View Source (since 1.5.0)

Specs

chunk_every(Enumerable.t(), pos_integer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Shortcut to chunk_every(enum, count, count).

Link to this function

chunk_every(enum, count, step, leftover \\ [])

View Source (since 1.5.0)

Specs

chunk_every(
  Enumerable.t(),
  pos_integer(),
  pos_integer(),
  Enumerable.t() | :discard
) :: Enumerable.t()

Streams the enumerable in chunks, containing count elements each, where each new chunk starts step elements into the enumerable.

step is optional and, if not passed, defaults to count, i.e. chunks do not overlap.

If the last chunk does not have count elements to fill the chunk, elements are taken from leftover to fill in the chunk. If leftover does not have enough elements to fill the chunk, then a partial chunk is returned with less than count elements.

If :discard is given in leftover, the last chunk is discarded unless it has exactly count elements.

Examples

iex> Stream.chunk_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 2) |> Enum.to_list()
[[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]]

iex> Stream.chunk_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 3, 2, :discard) |> Enum.to_list()
[[1, 2, 3], [3, 4, 5]]

iex> Stream.chunk_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 3, 2, [7]) |> Enum.to_list()
[[1, 2, 3], [3, 4, 5], [5, 6, 7]]

iex> Stream.chunk_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], 3, 3, []) |> Enum.to_list()
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
Link to this function

chunk_while(enum, acc, chunk_fun, after_fun)

View Source (since 1.5.0)

Specs

chunk_while(
  Enumerable.t(),
  acc(),
  (element(), acc() -> {:cont, chunk, acc()} | {:cont, acc()} | {:halt, acc()}),
  (acc() -> {:cont, chunk, acc()} | {:cont, acc()})
) :: Enumerable.t()
when chunk: any()

Chunks the enum with fine grained control when every chunk is emitted.

chunk_fun receives the current element and the accumulator and must return {:cont, element, acc} to emit the given chunk and continue with accumulator or {:cont, acc} to not emit any chunk and continue with the return accumulator.

after_fun is invoked when iteration is done and must also return {:cont, element, acc} or {:cont, acc}.

Examples

iex> chunk_fun = fn element, acc ->
...>   if rem(element, 2) == 0 do
...>     {:cont, Enum.reverse([element | acc]), []}
...>   else
...>     {:cont, [element | acc]}
...>   end
...> end
iex> after_fun = fn
...>   [] -> {:cont, []}
...>   acc -> {:cont, Enum.reverse(acc), []}
...> end
iex> stream = Stream.chunk_while(1..10, [], chunk_fun, after_fun)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8], [9, 10]]

Specs

concat(Enumerable.t()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that enumerates each enumerable in an enumerable.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.concat([1..3, 4..6, 7..9])
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

Specs

Creates a stream that enumerates the first argument, followed by the second.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

iex> stream1 = Stream.cycle([1, 2, 3])
iex> stream2 = Stream.cycle([4, 5, 6])
iex> stream = Stream.concat(stream1, stream2)
iex> Enum.take(stream, 6)
[1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]

Specs

cycle(Enumerable.t()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that cycles through the given enumerable, infinitely.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.cycle([1, 2, 3])
iex> Enum.take(stream, 5)
[1, 2, 3, 1, 2]

Specs

dedup(Enumerable.t()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are different from the last emitted element.

This function only ever needs to store the last emitted element.

Elements are compared using ===/2.

Examples

iex> Stream.dedup([1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1]) |> Enum.to_list()
[1, 2, 3, 2, 1]

Specs

dedup_by(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that only emits elements if the result of calling fun on the element is different from the (stored) result of calling fun on the last emitted element.

Examples

iex> Stream.dedup_by([{1, :x}, {2, :y}, {2, :z}, {1, :x}], fn {x, _} -> x end) |> Enum.to_list()
[{1, :x}, {2, :y}, {1, :x}]

Specs

Lazily drops the next n elements from the enumerable.

If a negative n is given, it will drop the last n elements from the collection. Note that the mechanism by which this is implemented will delay the emission of any element until n additional elements have been emitted by the enum.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.drop(1..10, 5)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

iex> stream = Stream.drop(1..10, -5)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Specs

drop_every(Enumerable.t(), non_neg_integer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that drops every nth element from the enumerable.

The first element is always dropped, unless nth is 0.

nth must be a non-negative integer.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.drop_every(1..10, 2)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

iex> stream = Stream.drop_every(1..1000, 1)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[]

iex> stream = Stream.drop_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], 0)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Specs

drop_while(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> as_boolean(term()))) :: Enumerable.t()

Lazily drops elements of the enumerable while the given function returns a truthy value.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.drop_while(1..10, &(&1 <= 5))
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

Specs

each(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()

Executes the given function for each element.

Useful for adding side effects (like printing) to a stream.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.each([1, 2, 3], fn x -> send(self(), x) end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
iex> receive do: (x when is_integer(x) -> x)
1
iex> receive do: (x when is_integer(x) -> x)
2
iex> receive do: (x when is_integer(x) -> x)
3

Specs

filter(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> as_boolean(term()))) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that filters elements according to the given function on enumeration.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.filter([1, 2, 3], fn x -> rem(x, 2) == 0 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[2]

Specs

flat_map(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> Enumerable.t())) :: Enumerable.t()

Maps the given fun over enumerable and flattens the result.

This function returns a new stream built by appending the result of invoking fun on each element of enumerable together.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.flat_map([1, 2, 3], fn x -> [x, x * 2] end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 2, 4, 3, 6]

iex> stream = Stream.flat_map([1, 2, 3], fn x -> [[x]] end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[[1], [2], [3]]
Link to this function

intersperse(enumerable, intersperse_element)

View Source (since 1.6.0)

Specs

intersperse(Enumerable.t(), any()) :: Enumerable.t()

Lazily intersperses intersperse_element between each element of the enumeration.

Examples

iex> Stream.intersperse([1, 2, 3], 0) |> Enum.to_list()
[1, 0, 2, 0, 3]

iex> Stream.intersperse([1], 0) |> Enum.to_list()
[1]

iex> Stream.intersperse([], 0) |> Enum.to_list()
[]

Specs

interval(timer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that emits a value after the given period n in milliseconds.

The values emitted are an increasing counter starting at 0. This operation will block the caller by the given interval every time a new element is streamed.

Do not use this function to generate a sequence of numbers. If blocking the caller process is not necessary, use Stream.iterate(0, & &1 + 1) instead.

Examples

iex> Stream.interval(10) |> Enum.take(10)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Link to this function

into(enum, collectable, transform \\ fn x -> x end)

View Source

Specs

into(Enumerable.t(), Collectable.t(), (term() -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()

Injects the stream values into the given collectable as a side-effect.

This function is often used with run/1 since any evaluation is delayed until the stream is executed. See run/1 for an example.

Link to this function

iterate(start_value, next_fun)

View Source

Specs

iterate(element(), (element() -> element())) :: Enumerable.t()

Emits a sequence of values, starting with start_value. Successive values are generated by calling next_fun on the previous value.

Examples

iex> Stream.iterate(0, &(&1 + 1)) |> Enum.take(5)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

Specs

map(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> any())) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that will apply the given function on enumeration.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.map([1, 2, 3], fn x -> x * 2 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[2, 4, 6]
Link to this function

map_every(enum, nth, fun)

View Source (since 1.4.0)

Specs

map_every(Enumerable.t(), non_neg_integer(), (element() -> any())) ::
  Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that will apply the given function on every nth element from the enumerable.

The first element is always passed to the given function.

nth must be a non-negative integer.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.map_every(1..10, 2, fn x -> x * 2 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[2, 2, 6, 4, 10, 6, 14, 8, 18, 10]

iex> stream = Stream.map_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], 1, fn x -> x * 2 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

iex> stream = Stream.map_every(1..5, 0, fn x -> x * 2 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Specs

reject(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> as_boolean(term()))) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that will reject elements according to the given function on enumeration.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.reject([1, 2, 3], fn x -> rem(x, 2) == 0 end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 3]
Link to this function

repeatedly(generator_fun)

View Source

Specs

repeatedly((() -> element())) :: Enumerable.t()

Returns a stream generated by calling generator_fun repeatedly.

Examples

# Although not necessary, let's seed the random algorithm
iex> :rand.seed(:exrop, {1, 2, 3})
iex> Stream.repeatedly(&:rand.uniform/0) |> Enum.take(3)
[0.7498295129076106, 0.06161655489244533, 0.7924073127680873]
Link to this function

resource(start_fun, next_fun, after_fun)

View Source

Specs

resource(
  (() -> acc()),
  (acc() -> {[element()], acc()} | {:halt, acc()}),
  (acc() -> term())
) :: Enumerable.t()

Emits a sequence of values for the given resource.

Similar to transform/3 but the initial accumulated value is computed lazily via start_fun and executes an after_fun at the end of enumeration (both in cases of success and failure).

Successive values are generated by calling next_fun with the previous accumulator (the initial value being the result returned by start_fun) and it must return a tuple containing a list of elements to be emitted and the next accumulator. The enumeration finishes if it returns {:halt, acc}.

As the name says, this function is useful to stream values from resources.

Examples

Stream.resource(
  fn -> File.open!("sample") end,
  fn file ->
    case IO.read(file, :line) do
      data when is_binary(data) -> {[data], file}
      _ -> {:halt, file}
    end
  end,
  fn file -> File.close(file) end
)

iex> Stream.resource(
...>  fn ->
...>    {:ok, pid} = StringIO.open("string")
...>    pid
...>  end,
...>  fn pid ->
...>    case IO.getn(pid, "", 1) do
...>      :eof -> {:halt, pid}
...>      char -> {[char], pid}
...>    end
...>  end,
...>  fn pid -> StringIO.close(pid) end
...> ) |> Enum.to_list()
["s", "t", "r", "i", "n", "g"]

Specs

run(Enumerable.t()) :: :ok

Runs the given stream.

This is useful when a stream needs to be run, for side effects, and there is no interest in its return result.

Examples

Open up a file, replace all # by % and stream to another file without loading the whole file in memory:

File.stream!("/path/to/file")
|> Stream.map(&String.replace(&1, "#", "%"))
|> Stream.into(File.stream!("/path/to/other/file"))
|> Stream.run()

No computation will be done until we call one of the Enum functions or run/1.

Specs

scan(Enumerable.t(), (element(), acc() -> any())) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that applies the given function to each element, emits the result and uses the same result as the accumulator for the next computation. Uses the first element in the enumerable as the starting value.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.scan(1..5, &(&1 + &2))
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 3, 6, 10, 15]

Specs

scan(Enumerable.t(), acc(), (element(), acc() -> any())) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that applies the given function to each element, emits the result and uses the same result as the accumulator for the next computation. Uses the given acc as the starting value.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.scan(1..5, 0, &(&1 + &2))
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 3, 6, 10, 15]

Specs

Lazily takes the next count elements from the enumerable and stops enumeration.

If a negative count is given, the last count values will be taken. For such, the collection is fully enumerated keeping up to 2 * count elements in memory. Once the end of the collection is reached, the last count elements will be executed. Therefore, using a negative count on an infinite collection will never return.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.take(1..100, 5)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

iex> stream = Stream.take(1..100, -5)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[96, 97, 98, 99, 100]

iex> stream = Stream.cycle([1, 2, 3]) |> Stream.take(5)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 1, 2]

Specs

take_every(Enumerable.t(), non_neg_integer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that takes every nth element from the enumerable.

The first element is always included, unless nth is 0.

nth must be a non-negative integer.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.take_every(1..10, 2)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

iex> stream = Stream.take_every([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], 1)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

iex> stream = Stream.take_every(1..1000, 0)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[]

Specs

take_while(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> as_boolean(term()))) :: Enumerable.t()

Lazily takes elements of the enumerable while the given function returns a truthy value.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.take_while(1..100, &(&1 <= 5))
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Specs

timer(timer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that emits a single value after n milliseconds.

The value emitted is 0. This operation will block the caller by the given time until the element is streamed.

Examples

iex> Stream.timer(10) |> Enum.to_list()
[0]
Link to this function

transform(enum, acc, reducer)

View Source

Specs

transform(Enumerable.t(), acc, fun) :: Enumerable.t()
when fun: (element(), acc -> {Enumerable.t(), acc} | {:halt, acc}), acc: any()

Transforms an existing stream.

It expects an accumulator and a function that receives each stream element and an accumulator. It must return a tuple, where the first element is a new stream (often a list) or the atom :halt, and the second element is the accumulator to be used by the next element, if any, in both cases.

Note: this function is equivalent to Enum.flat_map_reduce/3, except this function does not return the accumulator once the stream is processed.

Examples

Stream.transform/3 is useful as it can be used as the basis to implement many of the functions defined in this module. For example, we can implement Stream.take(enum, n) as follows:

iex> enum = 1001..9999
iex> n = 3
iex> stream = Stream.transform(enum, 0, fn i, acc ->
...>   if acc < n, do: {[i], acc + 1}, else: {:halt, acc}
...> end)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[1001, 1002, 1003]
Link to this function

transform(enum, start_fun, reducer, after_fun)

View Source

Specs

transform(Enumerable.t(), (() -> acc), fun, (acc -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()
when fun: (element(), acc -> {Enumerable.t(), acc} | {:halt, acc}), acc: any()

Transforms an existing stream with function-based start and finish.

The accumulator is only calculated when transformation starts. It also allows an after function to be given which is invoked when the stream halts or completes.

This function can be seen as a combination of Stream.resource/3 with Stream.transform/3.

Link to this function

unfold(next_acc, next_fun)

View Source

Specs

unfold(acc(), (acc() -> {element(), acc()} | nil)) :: Enumerable.t()

Emits a sequence of values for the given accumulator.

Successive values are generated by calling next_fun with the previous accumulator and it must return a tuple with the current value and next accumulator. The enumeration finishes if it returns nil.

Examples

iex> Stream.unfold(5, fn
...>   0 -> nil
...>   n -> {n, n - 1}
...> end) |> Enum.to_list()
[5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

Specs

uniq(Enumerable.t()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are unique.

Keep in mind that, in order to know if an element is unique or not, this function needs to store all unique values emitted by the stream. Therefore, if the stream is infinite, the number of elements stored will grow infinitely, never being garbage-collected.

Examples

iex> Stream.uniq([1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1]) |> Enum.to_list()
[1, 2, 3]

Specs

uniq_by(Enumerable.t(), (element() -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream that only emits elements if they are unique, by removing the elements for which function fun returned duplicate elements.

The function fun maps every element to a term which is used to determine if two elements are duplicates.

Keep in mind that, in order to know if an element is unique or not, this function needs to store all unique values emitted by the stream. Therefore, if the stream is infinite, the number of elements stored will grow infinitely, never being garbage-collected.

Example

iex> Stream.uniq_by([{1, :x}, {2, :y}, {1, :z}], fn {x, _} -> x end) |> Enum.to_list()
[{1, :x}, {2, :y}]

iex> Stream.uniq_by([a: {:tea, 2}, b: {:tea, 2}, c: {:coffee, 1}], fn {_, y} -> y end) |> Enum.to_list()
[a: {:tea, 2}, c: {:coffee, 1}]
Link to this function

with_index(enum, offset \\ 0)

View Source

Specs

with_index(Enumerable.t(), integer()) :: Enumerable.t()

Creates a stream where each element in the enumerable will be wrapped in a tuple alongside its index.

If an offset is given, we will index from the given offset instead of from zero.

Examples

iex> stream = Stream.with_index([1, 2, 3])
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[{1, 0}, {2, 1}, {3, 2}]

iex> stream = Stream.with_index([1, 2, 3], 3)
iex> Enum.to_list(stream)
[{1, 3}, {2, 4}, {3, 5}]
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zip(enumerables)

View Source (since 1.4.0)

Specs

zip(enumerables) :: Enumerable.t()
when enumerables: [Enumerable.t()] | Enumerable.t()

Zips corresponding elements from a finite collection of enumerables into one stream of tuples.

The zipping finishes as soon as any enumerable in the given collection completes.

Examples

iex> concat = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> cycle = Stream.cycle(["foo", "bar", "baz"])
iex> Stream.zip([concat, [:a, :b, :c], cycle]) |> Enum.to_list()
[{1, :a, "foo"}, {2, :b, "bar"}, {3, :c, "baz"}]
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zip(enumerable1, enumerable2)

View Source

Specs

Zips two enumerables together, lazily.

The zipping finishes as soon as either enumerable completes.

Examples

iex> concat = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> cycle = Stream.cycle([:a, :b, :c])
iex> Stream.zip(concat, cycle) |> Enum.to_list()
[{1, :a}, {2, :b}, {3, :c}, {4, :a}, {5, :b}, {6, :c}]
Link to this function

zip_with(enumerables, zip_fun)

View Source (since 1.12.0)

Specs

zip_with(enumerables, (Enumerable.t() -> term())) :: Enumerable.t()
when enumerables: [Enumerable.t()] | Enumerable.t()

Lazily zips corresponding elements from a finite collection of enumerables into a new enumerable, transforming them with the zip_fun function as it goes.

The first element from each of the enums in enumerables will be put into a list which is then passed to the 1-arity zip_fun function. Then the second elements from each of the enums are put into a list and passed to zip_fun, and so on until any one of the enums in enumerables completes.

Returns a new enumerable with the results of calling zip_fun.

Examples

iex> concat = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> Stream.zip_with([concat, concat], fn [a, b] -> a + b end) |> Enum.to_list()
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]

iex> concat = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> Stream.zip_with([concat, concat, 1..3], fn [a, b, c] -> a + b + c end) |> Enum.to_list()
[3, 6, 9]
Link to this function

zip_with(enumerable1, enumerable2, zip_fun)

View Source (since 1.12.0)

Specs

zip_with(Enumerable.t(), Enumerable.t(), (term(), term() -> term())) ::
  Enumerable.t()

Lazily zips corresponding elements from two enumerables into a new one, transforming them with the zip_fun function as it goes.

The zip_fun will be called with the first element from enumerable1 and the first element from enumerable2, then with the second element from each, and so on until either one of the enumerables completes.

Examples

iex> concat = Stream.concat(1..3, 4..6)
iex> Stream.zip_with(concat, concat, fn a, b -> a + b end) |> Enum.to_list()
[2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]