Elixir v1.7.0-dev Tuple View Source

Functions for working with tuples.

Tuples are composite data types with a fixed number of elements. Tuples can contain elements of any type, and a tuple can contain elements of different types. Curly braces can be used to create tuples:

iex> {}
{}
iex> {1, :two, "three"}
{1, :two, "three"}

Tuples store elements contiguously in memory. This means accessing a tuple element by index doesn’t depend on the number of elements in the tuple. We say the operation is done in constant-time, via the Kernel.elem/1 function:

iex> tuple = {1, :two, "three"}
iex> elem(tuple, 0)
1
iex> elem(tuple, 2)
"three"

Same goes for getting the tuple size with Kernel.tuple_size/1:

iex> tuple_size({})
0
iex> tuple_size({1, 2, 3})
3

Tuples being stored contiguously in memory also means that updating a tuple (for example replacing an element with Kernel.put_elem/3) will make a shallow copy of the whole tuple. The tuple elements are still shared thanks to immutability.

Tuples are not meant to be used as a “collection” type but rather as a fixed-size container for multiple elements. That’s why it is not possible to traverse a tuple dynamically using the functions in the Enum module.

For example, tuples are often used to have functions return “enriched” values: a common pattern is for functions to return {:ok, value} for successful cases and {:error, reason} for unsuccessful cases. This is exactly what File.read/1 does: it returns {:ok, contents} if reading the given file is successful, or {:error, reason} otherwise, such as when the file does not exist.

The most common operations performed on tuples are available in Kernel (Kernel.tuple_size/1, Kernel.elem/2, Kernel.put_elem/3, and others) and are automatically imported into your code. The functions in this module cover other cases, such as dynamic creation of tuples (Tuple.duplicate/2) and conversion to list (Tuple.to_list/1). The functions that add and remove elements from tuples, changing their size, are rarely used in practice, as they typically imply tuples are being used as collections. Even if you have a tuple {:ok, atom} and you want to append another element to it, such as an empty map, it is preferrable to rely on pattern matching and create a new tuple than manipulating it dynamically:

tuple = {:ok, :example}

# Avoid
Tuple.insert_at(tuple, 2, %{}}

# Prefer
{:ok, atom} = tuple
{:ok, atom, %{}}

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Inserts an element at the end of a tuple

Removes an element from a tuple

Creates a new tuple

Inserts an element into a tuple

Converts a tuple to a list

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function append(tuple, value) View Source
append(tuple(), term()) :: tuple()

Inserts an element at the end of a tuple.

Returns a new tuple with the element appended at the end, and contains the elements in tuple followed by value as the last element.

Inlined by the compiler.

Examples

iex> tuple = {:foo, :bar}
iex> Tuple.append(tuple, :baz)
{:foo, :bar, :baz}
Link to this function delete_at(tuple, index) View Source
delete_at(tuple(), non_neg_integer()) :: tuple()

Removes an element from a tuple.

Deletes the element at the given index from tuple. Raises an ArgumentError if index is negative or greater than or equal to the length of tuple. Index is zero-based.

Inlined by the compiler.

Examples

iex> tuple = {:foo, :bar, :baz}
iex> Tuple.delete_at(tuple, 0)
{:bar, :baz}
Link to this function duplicate(data, size) View Source
duplicate(term(), non_neg_integer()) :: tuple()

Creates a new tuple.

Creates a tuple of size containing the given data at every position.

Inlined by the compiler.

Examples

iex> Tuple.duplicate(:hello, 3)
{:hello, :hello, :hello}
Link to this function insert_at(tuple, index, value) View Source
insert_at(tuple(), non_neg_integer(), term()) :: tuple()

Inserts an element into a tuple.

Inserts value into tuple at the given index. Raises an ArgumentError if index is negative or greater than the length of tuple. Index is zero-based.

Inlined by the compiler.

Examples

iex> tuple = {:bar, :baz}
iex> Tuple.insert_at(tuple, 0, :foo)
{:foo, :bar, :baz}
iex> Tuple.insert_at(tuple, 2, :bong)
{:bar, :baz, :bong}
Link to this function to_list(tuple) View Source
to_list(tuple()) :: list()

Converts a tuple to a list.

Returns a new list with all the tuple elements.

Inlined by the compiler.

Examples

iex> tuple = {:foo, :bar, :baz}
iex> Tuple.to_list(tuple)
[:foo, :bar, :baz]