Elixir v1.6.0-dev URI View Source

Utilities for working with URIs.

This module provides functions for working with URIs (for example, parsing URIs or encoding query strings). The functions in this module are implemented according to RFC 3986.

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Checks if the character is a “reserved” character in a URI

Checks if the character is allowed unescaped in a URI

Checks if the character is a “unreserved” character in a URI

Percent-unescapes a URI

Decodes a query string into a map

Decodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”

Returns the default port for a given scheme

Registers the default port for the given scheme

Percent-escapes all characters that require escaped in a string

Encodes an enumerable into a query string

Encodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”

Merges two URIs

Parses a well-formed URI reference into its components

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct

Link to this section Types

Link to this type t() View Source
t() :: %URI{authority: nil | binary, fragment: nil | binary, host: nil | binary, path: nil | binary, port: nil | :inet.port_number, query: nil | binary, scheme: nil | binary, userinfo: nil | binary}

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function char_reserved?(char) View Source
char_reserved?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is a “reserved” character in a URI.

Reserved characters are specified in RFC 3986, section 2.2.

Examples

iex> URI.char_reserved?(?+)
true
Link to this function char_unescaped?(char) View Source
char_unescaped?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is allowed unescaped in a URI.

This is the default used by URI.encode/2 where both reserved and unreserved characters are kept unescaped.

Examples

iex> URI.char_unescaped?(?{)
false
Link to this function char_unreserved?(char) View Source
char_unreserved?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is a “unreserved” character in a URI.

Unreserved characters are specified in RFC 3986, section 2.3.

Examples

iex> URI.char_unreserved?(?_)
true
Link to this function decode(uri) View Source
decode(binary) :: binary

Percent-unescapes a URI.

Examples

iex> URI.decode("http%3A%2F%2Felixir-lang.org")
"http://elixir-lang.org"
Link to this function decode_query(query, map \\ %{}) View Source
decode_query(binary, map) :: map

Decodes a query string into a map.

Given a query string of the form of key1=value1&key2=value2..., this function inserts each key-value pair in the query string as one entry in the given map. Keys and values in the resulting map will be binaries. Keys and values will be percent-unescaped.

Use query_decoder/1 if you want to iterate over each value manually.

Examples

iex> URI.decode_query("foo=1&bar=2")
%{"bar" => "2", "foo" => "1"}

iex> URI.decode_query("percent=oh+yes%21", %{"starting" => "map"})
%{"percent" => "oh yes!", "starting" => "map"}
Link to this function decode_www_form(string) View Source
decode_www_form(binary) :: binary

Decodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”.

Examples

iex> URI.decode_www_form("%3Call+in%2F")
"<all in/"
Link to this function default_port(scheme) View Source
default_port(binary) :: nil | non_neg_integer

Returns the default port for a given scheme.

If the scheme is unknown to the URI module, this function returns nil. The default port for any scheme can be configured globally via default_port/2.

Examples

iex> URI.default_port("ftp")
21

iex> URI.default_port("ponzi")
nil
Link to this function default_port(scheme, port) View Source
default_port(binary, non_neg_integer) :: :ok

Registers the default port for the given scheme.

After this function is called, port will be returned by default_port/1 for the given scheme scheme. Note that this function changes the default port for the given scheme globally, meaning for every application.

It is recommended for this function to be invoked in your application’s start callback in case you want to register new URIs.

Link to this function encode(string, predicate \\ &char_unescaped?/1) View Source
encode(binary, (byte -> boolean)) :: binary

Percent-escapes all characters that require escaped in a string.

This means reserved characters, such as : and /, and the so- called unreserved characters, which have the same meaning both escaped and unescaped, won’t be escaped by default.

See encode_www_form if you are interested in escaping reserved characters too.

This function also accepts a predicate function as an optional argument. If passed, this function will be called with each byte in string as its argument and should return true if the given byte should be left as is.

Examples

iex> URI.encode("ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put it+й")
"ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put%20it+%D0%B9"

iex> URI.encode("a string", &(&1 != ?i))
"a str%69ng"
Link to this function encode_query(enumerable) View Source
encode_query(term) :: binary

Encodes an enumerable into a query string.

Takes an enumerable that enumerates as a list of two-element tuples (e.g., a map or a keyword list) and returns a string in the form of key1=value1&key2=value2... where keys and values are URL encoded as per encode_www_form/1.

Keys and values can be any term that implements the String.Chars protocol, except lists which are explicitly forbidden.

Examples

iex> hd = %{"foo" => 1, "bar" => 2}
iex> URI.encode_query(hd)
"bar=2&foo=1"

iex> query = %{"key" => "value with spaces"}
iex> URI.encode_query(query)
"key=value+with+spaces"

iex> URI.encode_query %{key: [:a, :list]}
** (ArgumentError) encode_query/1 values cannot be lists, got: [:a, :list]
Link to this function encode_www_form(string) View Source
encode_www_form(binary) :: binary

Encodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”.

Example

iex> URI.encode_www_form("put: it+й")
"put%3A+it%2B%D0%B9"
Link to this function merge(uri, rel) View Source
merge(t | binary, t | binary) :: t

Merges two URIs.

This function merges two URIs as per RFC 3986, section 5.2.

Examples

iex> URI.merge(URI.parse("http://google.com"), "/query") |> to_string
"http://google.com/query"

iex> URI.merge("http://example.com", "http://google.com") |> to_string
"http://google.com"
Link to this function parse(uri) View Source
parse(t | binary) :: t

Parses a well-formed URI reference into its components.

Note this function expects a well-formed URI and does not perform any validation. See the “Examples” section below for examples of how URI.parse/1 can be used to parse a wide range of URIs.

This function uses the parsing regular expression as defined in RFC 3986, Appendix B.

When a URI is given without a port, the value returned by URI.default_port/1 for the URI’s scheme is used for the :port field.

If a %URI{} struct is given to this function, this function returns it unmodified.

Examples

iex> URI.parse("http://elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{scheme: "http", path: "/", query: nil, fragment: nil,
     authority: "elixir-lang.org", userinfo: nil,
     host: "elixir-lang.org", port: 80}

iex> URI.parse("//elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{authority: "elixir-lang.org", fragment: nil, host: "elixir-lang.org",
     path: "/", port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}

iex> URI.parse("/foo/bar")
%URI{authority: nil, fragment: nil, host: nil, path: "/foo/bar",
     port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}

iex> URI.parse("foo/bar")
%URI{authority: nil, fragment: nil, host: nil, path: "foo/bar",
     port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}
Link to this function query_decoder(query) View Source
query_decoder(binary) :: Enumerable.t

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query.

Key and value in each tuple will be binaries and will be percent-unescaped.

Examples

iex> URI.query_decoder("foo=1&bar=2") |> Enum.to_list()
[{"foo", "1"}, {"bar", "2"}]
Link to this function to_string(uri) View Source
to_string(t) :: binary

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct.

iex> URI.to_string(URI.parse("http://google.com"))
"http://google.com"

iex> URI.to_string(%URI{scheme: "foo", host: "bar.baz"})
"foo://bar.baz"