View Source Cldr Routes

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Generate localized routes and a localized path helper module.

This module when used , provides a localize/1 macro that is designed to wrap the standard Phoenix route macros such as get/3, put/3 and resources/3. The routes are localised for each locale configured in a Gettext backend module that is attached to a Cldr backend module.

Translations for the parts of a given route path are performed at compile-time and are then combined into a localised route that is added to the standard Phoenix routing framework.

As a result, users can enter URLs using localised terms which can enhance user engagement and content relevance.

Similarly, localised path and URL helpers are generated that wrap the standard Phoenix helpers to support generating localised paths and URLs.

setting-up

Setting up

A Cldr backend module that configures an associated gettext backend is required. In addition, a Gettext backend must be configured and added to the Cldr configuration.

Path parts (the parts between "/") are translated at compile time using Gettext. Therefore localization can only be applied to locales that are defined in a gettext backend module that is attached to a Cldr backend module.

The following steps should be followed to set up the configuration for localized routes and helpers:

configure-gettext

Configure Gettext

The first step is to ensure there is a configured Gettext backend module:

defmodule MyAppWeb.Gettext do
  use Gettext, otp_app: :my_app
end

configure-cldr

Configure Cldr

The next step is to configure a Cldr backend module, including configuring it with the Gettext module defined in the first step. The MyApp.Cldr backend module is used to instrospect the configured locales that drive the route and helper localization.

defmodule MyApp.Cldr do
  use Cldr,
    locales: ["en", "fr"],
    default_locale: "en".
    gettext: MyApp.Gettext
    providers: [Cldr.Route]

end

Note the addition of Cldr.Route to the :providers configuration key is required.

define-localized-routes

Define Localized Routes

Now we can configure the router module to use the localize/1 macro by adding use MyApp.Cldr.Routes to the module and invoke the localize/1 macro to wrap the required routes. use MyApp.Cldr.Routes must be added after use Phoenix.Router. For example:

defmodule MyAppWeb.Router do
  use Phoenix.Router
  use MyApp.Cldr.Routes

  localize do
    get "/pages/:page", PageController, :show
    resources "/users", UserController
  end
end

The following routes are generated (assuming that translations are updated in the Gettext configuration). For this example, the :fr translations are the same as the :en text with _fr appended.

% mix phx.routes MyAppWeb.Router
page_de_path  GET     /pages_de/:page     PageController :show
page_en_path  GET     /pages/:page        PageController :show
page_fr_path  GET     /pages_fr/:page     PageController :show
user_de_path  GET     /users_de           UserController :index
user_de_path  GET     /users_de/:id/edit  UserController :edit
user_de_path  GET     /users_de/new       UserController :new
user_de_path  GET     /users_de/:id       UserController :show
...

interpolating-locale-data

Interpolating Locale Data

A route may be defined with elements of the locale interpolated into it. These interpolatins are specified using the normal #{} interpolation syntax. However since route translation occurs at compile time only the following interpolations are supported:

  • locale will interpolate the Cldr locale name
  • language will interpolate the Cldr language name
  • territory will interpolate the Cldr territory code

Some examples are:

localize do
  get "/#{locale}/locale/pages/:page", PageController, :show
  get "/#{language}/language/pages/:page", PageController, :show
  get "/#{territory}/territory/pages/:page", PageController, :show
end

localized-helpers

Localized Helpers

Manually constructing the localized helper names shown in the example above would be tedious. Therefore a LocalizedHelpers module is geenrated at compile-time. Assuming the router module is called MyAppWeb.Router then the full name of the localized helper module is MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers.

The functions on this module are the non-localized versions that should be used by applications (they delegate ultimately to the localized routes based upon the current locale).

The functions on the LocalizedHelpers module all respect the current locale, based upon Cldr.get_locale/1, and will delegate to the appropriate localized function in the Helpers function created automatically at compile time. For example:

iex> MyApp.Cldr.put_locale("en")
iex> MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers.page_path %Plug.Conn{}, :show, 1
"/pages/1"
iex> MyApp.Cldr.put_locale("fr")
iex> MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers.page_path %Plug.Conn{}, :show, 1
"/pages_fr/1"

Note The localized helpers translate the path based upon the :gettext_locale_name for the currently set Cldr locale. It is the developers responsibility to ensure that the locale is set appropriately before calling any localized path helpers.

introspecting-localized-routes

Introspecting localized routes

For convenience in introspecting routes, a module called MyApp.Router.LocalizedRoutes is generated that can be used with the mix phx.routes mix task. For example:

% cldr_routes % mix phx.routes MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedRoutes
page_path  GET     /pages_de/:page     PageController :show
page_path  GET     /pages/:page        PageController :show
page_path  GET     /pages_fr/:page     PageController :show
user_path  GET     /users_de           UserController :index
user_path  GET     /users_de/:id/edit  UserController :edit
user_path  GET     /users_de/new       UserController :new
...

In addition, each localized path stores the Cldr locale in the :private field for the route under the :cldr_locale key. This allows the developer to recognise which locale was used to generate the localized route.

This information is also used by functions in the ex_cldr_plugs library to:

  • Identify the users locale from the route in Cldr.Plug.PutLocale
  • Store the identified locale in the session in Cldr.Plug.PutSession
  • Propogate the locale from the session into a LiveView process during the on_mount/3 callback with Cldr.Plug.put_locale_from_session/2

configuring-localized-helpers-as-default

Configuring Localized Helpers as default

Since LocalizedHelpers have the same semantics and API as the standard Helpers module it is possible to update the generated Phoenix configuration to use the LocalizedHelpers module by default. Assuming the presence of myapp_web.ex defining the module MyAppWeb then changing the view_helpers function to:

defp view_helpers do
  quote do
    ...

    import MyAppWeb.ErrorHelpers
    import MyAppWeb.Gettext
    alias MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers, as: Routes
  end
end

will result in the automatic use of the localized helpers rather than the standard helpers. The contoller/0 function should similarly be updated:

def controller do
  quote do
    use Phoenix.Controller, namespace: MyAppWeb

    import Plug.Conn
    import MyAppWeb.Gettext
    alias MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers, as: Routes
  end
end

When the same content is produced in multiple languages it is important to cross-link the different editions of the content to each other. This is good practise in general but strong advised by goggle to reduce SEO risks for your site.

This cross-linking can be done with the aid of HTTP headers or with <link /> tags in the <head> section of an HTML document. Helpers are generated by ex_cldr_routes to facilitate the creating of these links. These functions are generated in the MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers module (where MyAppWeb.Router is the name of your Phoenix router module).

  • MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers.<helper>_links generated a mapping of locales for a given route to the URLs for those locales.
  • MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers.hreflang_links/1 take the generated map and produces link headers ready for insertion into an HTML document.

The functions can be used as follows:

  1. Update the controller to generate the links and add them to :assigns
defmodule MyAppWeb.UserController do
  use MyAppWeb, :controller

  # This alias would normally be set in the
  # MyAppWeb.controller/0 and MyAppWeb.view_helpers/0
  # functions
  alias MyAppWeb.Router.LocalizedHelpers, as: Routes

  alias MyApp.Accounts
  alias MyApp.Accounts.User

  def show(conn, %{"id" => id}) do
    user = Accounts.get_user!(id)
    hreflang_links = Routes.user_links(conn, :show, id)
    render(conn, "show.html", user: user, hreflang_links: hreflang_links)
  end
end
  1. Update the root layout to add the hreflang links
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"/>
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge"/>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0"/>
    <%= Routes.hreflang_links(assigns[:hreflang_links]) %>
    <%= csrf_meta_tag() %>
    <%= live_title_tag assigns[:page_title] || "Routing", suffix: " · Phoenix Framework" %>
    <link phx-track-static rel="stylesheet" href={Routes.static_path(@conn, "/assets/app.css")}/>
    <script defer phx-track-static type="text/javascript" src={Routes.static_path(@conn, "/assets/app.js")}></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    ...
    <%= @inner_content %>
  </body>
</html>

translations

Translations

In order for routes to be localized, translations must be provided for each path segment. This translation is performed by dgettext/3 with the domain "routes". Therefore for each configured locale, a "routes.pot" file is required containing the path segment translations for that locale.

Using the example Cldr backend that has "en" and "fr" Gettext locales then the directory structure would look like the following (if the default Gettext configuration is used):

priv/gettext
 default.pot
 en
    LC_MESSAGES
        default.po
        errors.po
        routes.po
 errors.pot
 fr
     LC_MESSAGES
         default.po
         errors.po
         routes.po

The mix tasks gettext.extract and gettext.merge can be used to support the extraction of routing segments and to create new translation locales.

installation

Installation

The package can be installed by adding ex_cldr_routes to your list of dependencies in mix.exs. See also the section on setting up for configuring the Cldr backend module and the phoenix router.

def deps do
  [
    {:ex_cldr_routes, "~> 0.6.0"}
  ]
end

The docs can be found at https://hexdocs.pm/ex_cldr_routes.