Deploying to AWS¶
There are many different ways to deploy applications - one of the reasons why Distillery is as configurable as it is, is due to the inherently custom nature of most deployment environments.
There are also many ways of deploying to AWS! Particularly with recent developments which add hosted Kubernetes to the AWS family of services, you essentially have 3 main choices: VMs with EC2, containers with ECS, or containers with EKS/Fargate.
This guide is going to cover a deployment methodology that is based on Infrastructure as Code (IaC), and continuous integration and deployment.
For this, we do the following:
- Define all infrastructure resources via CloudFormation templates
- Provision the initial deployment pipeline with a
pipeline.ymlCloudFormation template, this creates a stack with CodePipeline, CodeBuild, and CodeDeploy resources, an encrypted S3 bucket for build artifacts, an IAM role for EC2 instances, and IAM roles for the CodePipeline/Build/Deploy services.
- The pipeline monitors a GitHub repository via webhook, pushes trigger the pipeline to fetch the source from GitHub for that revision, and push it into an S3 bucket for CodeBuild
- CodeBuild runs the build for the application in Docker, in a Centos7 base image which will allow us to build a release for an Amazon Linux 2-based EC2 host.
- A successful build will output artifacts for deployment, of which two files
define the CloudFormation template for the infrastructure being deployed to,
and the configuration for that infrastructure,
production.confrespectively. This enables us to create multiple environments in the future if desired.
- The first stage of deployment involves CloudFormation getting the template for the target infrastructure, applying the template configuration, and then creating the resulting infrastructure it if it doesn’t exist, updating it if it does, or replacing it if the last infrastructure deployment failed.
- The final stage of deployment involves CodeDeploy, which interacts with the EC2 hosts created in the previous step to install the release, run any prerequisite steps, and then start the release. CodeDeploy will deploy to one host at a time, disconnecting it from the load balancer, installing the release, then reconnecting it to the load balancer, until all hosts are updated.
While I put a lot of effort into this guide, I do not make any guarantees that it is free of defects or security holes. If you do use this guide to set up your own infrastructure, you need to take the time to understand what you are doing, and have someone that is an expert review it to ensure that it is secure. Use at your own risk!
If you aren’t sure why you would want to set this infrastructure up, the following is a list of the benefits:
- Infrastructure as Code - your infrastructure is defined, and lives alongside, your application code. Changes to that infrastructure are versioned and managed just like any other code.
- Automated Builds - each commit to
mastertriggers a build which produces a Distillery release as an artifact
- Continuous Deployment - each successful build initiates a deployment. Faster iteration times mean smaller surface area for review and root cause analysis when things go wrong, it is also easier to roll back
- Zero Downtime Deploys - all hosts sit behind an application load balancer which ensures traffic is always being routed to a functional host. When deployments are rolled out, hosts have their connections drained, and are then disconnected from the load balancer, upgraded, then reconnected to the load balancer when they have passed health checks. This process ensures that users will never notice a rollout, unless intended
- Automatic Rollbacks - if a deployment fails, they are automatically rolled back by the pipeline, including changes to infrastructure
- Automatic Scaling - the use of autoscaling groups means that the application can be scaled up in response to monitoring events
- Load Balancing - load is automatically balanced between hosts, and configured with sticky sessions, traffic for a given session will always be routed to the same node
- Secure Configuration - secrets are stored via SSM in the parameter store as secure strings, encrypted with a key dedicated to the stack. Only the application and adminstrators can access the secrets
- Secure Networking - use of security groups and network rules ensure that only the traffic which we want to allow is permitted to reach each area of the infrastructure
You will need the following in order to follow along with this guide, I will cover some setup/configuration, but you won’t be able to follow along without these things:
- An AWS account - this seems obvious, but hey, we’re not going to start out by leaving things out of the guide
- An AWS user with administrative privileges, with the credentials exported,
i.e. you have the values for
- You have installed
awscli- you can do this with
brew install awsclior by following the installation instructions here
- You have logged in to
- You have forked and cloned the example application from here
- You have generated a GitHub OAuth token with
- You have provisioned an SSH key pair in AWS, and have the private key handy (see Provisioning an SSH key pair for instructions)
This guide has you spin up infrastructure in AWS. This infrastructure costs money, though it is a small amount if only running through the guide to see how it works, it is important to be aware that the resources involved do not all fall under the AWS Free Tier. If you do not want to incur costs, then you will not be able to follow this guide.
The example application we will use is a Phoenix application backed by a Postgres database. The web app itself is just a slightly modified TodoMVC clone which writes to the database via Phoenix.
It has the following requirements:
- Needs to serve plain HTTP traffic on some port
- Needs to serve secure HTTP traffic on another port (optional for this guide)
- Needs access to a Postgres database
In AWS, we will set it up like so:
- The application listens on port 4000
- An Application Load Balancer (ALB) listens on port 80 and forwards traffic to port 4000
- An RDS instance serves as our Postgres backend
In addition, we set it up so that we can SSH to the EC2 host, just in case we need to access a remote shell to the app, or do troubleshooting on the host.
The example application makes use of a few extra Distillery features to help make things easy to deploy:
- We use the Mix config provider to execute a dedicated config file on the EC2 host, this config file handles fetching secrets from SSM
- We use overlays to add a custom command for migrations, a systemd service
unit, and a custom
Otherwise, it is a normal release.
Provisioning an SSH key pair¶
To get an SSH key pair we can use to access EC2 hosts managed in our infrastructure, we can use the AWS CLI:
$ aws ec2 create-key-pair --key-name="distillery-aws-example" > key.out $ cat key.out | jq '.KeyMaterial' --raw-output > distillery-aws-example.pem
If you don’t have
jq installed, you can do so via HomeBrew, or simply copy
the contents of the
KeyMaterial property in
key.out to the
.pem we just created contains the private key for the SSH key pair.
Make sure to keep it safe and secure.
Provisioning a GitHub OAuth token¶
You need to provision a GitHub OAuth token for the webhook needed by CodePipeline:
- Visit https://github.com/settings/tokens
- Click “Generate New Token”
- Set description to “CodePipeline access for distillery-aws-example”
- Click “Generate Token”
- Copy the token somewhere secure
Provisioning our pipeline¶
If you want to follow progress of various components, you can do so in the AWS Console. To navigate to a particular service, click the Services dropdown and type in the name of the service you are looking for. For the most part, the ones you will be interested in are CloudFormation and CodePipeline, they will take you to other areas if you follow links. Lambda, CodeDeploy, and CodeBuild are also of interest.
First, make sure you are in the root of the distillery-aws-example repo (which you should have forked into your own account, and cloned locally):
$ git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:myaccount/distillery-aws-example.git $ cd distillery-aws-example
Now we need to spin up the CloudFormation stack for the pipeline:
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$ export GITHUB_TOKEN="<oauth_token>" $ export SSH_KEY_NAME=distillery-aws-example $ bin/cfn create
The values above are placeholders, use the names of the resources you created (i.e. if you used a different key name for the SSH key pair you created, set it appropriately here)
This step can take awhile, you can follow along in the AWS Console by navigating to the CloudFormation service.
This will spin up the initial CI/CD pipeline, then kick it off for the first time, pulling source from the given GitHub user/repo. A successful build will then kick off the creation of the “production” CloudFormation stack which will provision all of the other resources need by the application (RDS, load balancers, auto-scaling groups, etc.)
Once the second stack is up, and the CodeDeploy stage in CodePipeline has finished, you can proceed to the next section.
Testing It Out¶
To see the app in action, you will need to open up the
-production stack in
CloudFormation and look at the outputs for
WebsiteURL. This is the URL we can
use to access the application via the load balancer (we don’t bother to
provision a DNS record for this guide, but that would be the logical next step).
The URL should look something like:
To clean up the resources created in this guide, run the
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$ export GITHUB_TOKEN="<oauth_token>" $ export SSH_KEY_NAME=distillery-aws-example $ bin/cfn destroy
This cleans up all the versioned objects in S3 from builds run through the pipeline, then deletes the CloudFormation stacks that were created. This can take some time, so you may want to do other things while it completes.
Don’t forget to revoke the GitHub OAuth token you created, and delete the SSH key pair in AWS!
I plan to expand this guide with some additional information and advice on adapting to your own application or using different approaches to configuration, until then, the following links are recommended reading if you are looking to get started with AWS.