EarmarkParser (EarmarkParser v1.4.19) View Source



This is the structure of the result of as_ast.

{:ok, ast, []}                   = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, ast, deprecation_messages} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:error, ast, error_messages}    = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)

For examples see the functiondoc below.


Options can be passed into as_ast/2 according to the documentation of EarmarkParser.Options.

{status, ast, errors} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown, options)


Standard Gruber markdown.


Links supported by default

Oneline HTML Link tags
iex(1)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(~s{<a href="href">link</a>})
{:ok, [{"a", [{"href", "href"}], ["link"], %{verbatim: true}}], []}
Markdown links

New style ...

iex(2)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(~s{[title](destination)})
{:ok,  [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "destination"}], ["title"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

and old style

iex(3)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("[foo]: /url \"title\"\n\n[foo]\n")
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "/url"}, {"title", "title"}], ["foo"], %{}}], %{}}], []}


iex(4)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("<https://elixir-lang.com>")
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "https://elixir-lang.com"}], ["https://elixir-lang.com"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

Additional link parsing via options

Pure links

N.B. that the pure_links option is true by default

iex(5)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("https://github.com")
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "https://github.com"}], ["https://github.com"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

But can be deactivated

iex(6)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("https://github.com", pure_links: false)
{:ok, [{"p", [], ["https://github.com"], %{}}], []}

#### Wikilinks...

are disabled by default

iex(7)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("[[page]]")
{:ok, [{"p", [], ["[[page]]"], %{}}], []}

and can be enabled

iex(8)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("[[page]]", wikilinks: true)
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "page"}], ["page"], %{wikilink: true}}], %{}}], []}

Github Flavored Markdown

GFM is supported by default, however as GFM is a moving target and all GFM extension do not make sense in a general context, EarmarkParser does not support all of it, here is a list of what is supported:

Strike Through

iex(9)> EarmarkParser.as_ast("~~hello~~")
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"del", [], ["hello"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

Syntax Highlighting

All backquoted or fenced code blocks with a language string are rendered with the given language as a class attribute of the code tag.

For example:

iex(10)> [
...(10)>    "```elixir",
...(10)>    " @tag :hello",
...(10)>    "```"
...(10)> ] |> as_ast()
{:ok, [{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir"}], [" @tag :hello"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

will be rendered as shown in the doctest above.

If you want to integrate with a syntax highlighter with different conventions you can add more classes by specifying prefixes that will be put before the language string.

Prism.js for example needs a class language-elixir. In order to achieve that goal you can add language- as a code_class_prefix to EarmarkParser.Options.

In the following example we want more than one additional class, so we add more prefixes.

iex(11)> [
...(11)>    "```elixir",
...(11)>    " @tag :hello",
...(11)>    "```"
...(11)> ] |> as_ast(%EarmarkParser.Options{code_class_prefix: "lang- language-"})
{:ok, [{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir lang-elixir language-elixir"}], [" @tag :hello"], %{}}], %{}}], []}


N.B. Footnotes are disabled by default, use as_ast(..., footnotes: true) to enable them

Footnotes are now a superset of GFM Footnotes. This implies some changes

  • Footnote definitions ([^footnote_id]) must come at the end of your document (GFM)

  • Footnotes that are not referenced are not rendered anymore (GFM)

  • Footnote definitions can contain any markup with the exception of footnote definitions

    iex(12)> markdown = [ ...(12)> "My reference[^to_footnote]", ...(12)> "", ...(12)> "[^1]: I am not rendered", ...(12)> "[^to_footnote]: Important information"] ...(12)> {:ok, ast, []} = as_ast(markdown, footnotes: true) ...(12)> ast [ {"p", [], ["My reference",

     [{"href", "#fn:to_footnote"}, {"id", "fnref:to_footnote"}, {"class", "footnote"}, {"title", "see footnote"}],
     ["to_footnote"], %{}}

    ], %{}}, {"div", [{"class", "footnotes"}], [{"hr", [], [], %{}},

    {"ol", [], 
     [{"li", [{"id", "fn:to_footnote"}], 
       [{"a", [{"class", "reversefootnote"}, {"href", "#fnref:to_footnote"}, {"title", "return to article"}], ["&#x21A9;"], %{}},
        {"p", [], ["Important information"], %{}}], %{}}
    ], %{}}], %{}}


For more complex examples of footnotes, please refer to these tests


Are supported as long as they are preceded by an empty line.

State | Abbrev | Capital
----: | :----: | -------
Texas | TX     | Austin
Maine | ME     | Augusta

Tables may have leading and trailing vertical bars on each line

| State | Abbrev | Capital |
| ----: | :----: | ------- |
| Texas | TX     | Austin  |
| Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Tables need not have headers, in which case all column alignments default to left.

| Texas | TX     | Austin  |
| Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Currently we assume there are always spaces around interior vertical unless there are exterior bars.

However in order to be more GFM compatible the gfm_tables: true option can be used to interpret only interior vertical bars as a table if a separation line is given, therefore

 Elixir  | awesome

is a table (if and only if gfm_tables: true) while

 Elixir  | awesome

never is.

HTML Blocks

HTML is not parsed recursively or detected in all conditions right now, though GFM compliance is a goal.

But for now the following holds:

A HTML Block defined by a tag starting a line and the same tag starting a different line is parsed as one HTML AST node, marked with %{verbatim: true}


iex(13)> lines = [ "<div><span>", "some</span><text>", "</div>more text" ]
...(13)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(lines)
{:ok, [{"div", [], ["<span>", "some</span><text>"], %{verbatim: true}}, "more text"], []}

And a line starting with an opening tag and ending with the corresponding closing tag is parsed in similar fashion

iex(14)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(["<span class=\"superspan\">spaniel</span>"])
{:ok, [{"span", [{"class", "superspan"}], ["spaniel"], %{verbatim: true}}], []}

What is HTML?

We differ from strict GFM by allowing all tags not only HTML5 tags this holds for one liners....

iex(15)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(["<stupid />", "<not>better</not>"])
...(15)> ast
  {"stupid", [], [], %{verbatim: true}},
  {"not", [], ["better"], %{verbatim: true}}]

and for multi line blocks

iex(16)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast([ "<hello>", "world", "</hello>"])
...(16)> ast
[{"hello", [], ["world"], %{verbatim: true}}]

HTML Comments

Are recognized if they start a line (after ws and are parsed until the next --> is found all text after the next '-->' is ignored


iex(17)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(" <!-- Comment\ncomment line\ncomment --> text -->\nafter")
{:ok, [{:comment, [], [" Comment", "comment line", "comment "], %{comment: true}}, {"p", [], ["after"], %{}}], []}

Adding Attributes with the IAL extension

To block elements

HTML attributes can be added to any block-level element. We use the Kramdown syntax: add the line {: attrs } following the block.

iex(18)> markdown = ["# Headline", "{:.from-next-line}"]
...(18)> as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"h1", [{"class", "from-next-line"}], ["Headline"], %{}}], []}

Headers can also have the IAL string at the end of the line

iex(19)> markdown = ["# Headline{:.from-same-line}"]
...(19)> as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"h1", [{"class", "from-same-line"}], ["Headline"], %{}}], []}

A special use case is headers inside blockquotes which allow for some nifty styling in ex_doc* see this PR if you are interested in the technical details

iex(20)> markdown = ["> # Headline{:.warning}"]
...(20)> as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"blockquote", [], [{"h1", [{"class", "warning"}], ["Headline"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

This also works for headers inside lists

iex(21)> markdown = ["- # Headline{:.warning}"]
...(21)> as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"ul", [], [{"li", [], [{"h1", [{"class", "warning"}], ["Headline"], %{}}], %{}}], %{}}], []}

It still works for inline code, as it did before

iex(22)> markdown = "`Enum.map`{:lang=elixir}"
...(22)> as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"code", [{"class", "inline"}, {"lang", "elixir"}], ["Enum.map"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

attrs can be one or more of:

  • .className
  • #id
  • name=value, name="value", or name='value'

For example:

# Warning
{: .red}

Do not turn off the engine
if you are at altitude.
{: .boxed #warning spellcheck="true"}

To links or images

It is possible to add IAL attributes to generated links or images in the following format.

iex(23)> markdown = "[link](url) {: .classy}"
...(23)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{ :ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"class", "classy"}, {"href", "url"}], ["link"], %{}}], %{}}], []}

For both cases, malformed attributes are ignored and warnings are issued.

iex(24)> [ "Some text", "{:hello}" ] |> Enum.join("\n") |> EarmarkParser.as_ast()
{:error, [{"p", [], ["Some text"], %{}}], [{:warning, 2,"Illegal attributes [\"hello\"] ignored in IAL"}]}

It is possible to escape the IAL in both forms if necessary

iex(25)> markdown = "[link](url)\\{: .classy}"
...(25)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "url"}], ["link"], %{}}, "{: .classy}"], %{}}], []}

This of course is not necessary in code blocks or text lines containing an IAL-like string, as in the following example

iex(26)> markdown = "hello {:world}"
...(26)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, [{"p", [], ["hello {:world}"], %{}}], []}


  • Block-level HTML is correctly handled only if each HTML tag appears on its own line. So


    will work. However. the following won't

  • John Gruber's tests contain an ambiguity when it comes to lines that might be the start of a list inside paragraphs.

    One test says that

    This is the text
    * of a paragraph
    that I wrote

    is a single paragraph. The "*" is not significant. However, another test has

    *   A list item
        * an another

    and expects this to be a nested list. But, in reality, the second could just be the continuation of a paragraph. I've chosen always to use the second interpretation—a line that looks like a list item will always be a list item.

  • Rendering of block and inline elements.

    Block or void HTML elements that are at the absolute beginning of a line end the preceding paragraph. Thusly

    <hr />


    <hr />


     <hr />

    will be transformed into

     <hr /></p>


N.B. this is an experimental feature from v1.4.16-pre on and might change or be removed again

The idea is that each markdown line can be annotated, as such annotations change the semantics of Markdown they have to be enabled with the annotations option.

If the annotations option is set to a string (only one string is supported right now, but a list might be implemented later on, hence the name), the last occurrence of that string in a line and all text following it will be added to the line as an annotation.

Depending on how that line will eventually be parsed, this annotation will be added to the meta map (the 4th element in an AST quadruple) with the key :annotation

In the current version the annotation will only be applied to verbatim HTML tags and paragraphs

Let us show some examples now:

Annotated Paragraphs

iex(27)> as_ast("hello %> annotated", annotations: "%>")
{:ok, [{"p", [], ["hello "], %{annotation: "%> annotated"}}], []}

If we annotate more than one line in a para the first annotation takes precedence

iex(28)> as_ast("hello %> annotated\nworld %> discarded", annotations: "%>")
{:ok, [{"p", [], ["hello \nworld "], %{annotation: "%> annotated"}}], []}

Annotated HTML elements

In one line

iex(29)> as_ast("<span>One Line</span> // a span", annotations: "//")
{:ok, [{"span", [], ["One Line"], %{annotation: "// a span", verbatim: true}}], []}

or block elements

iex(30)> [
...(30)> "<div> : annotation",
...(30)> "  <span>text</span>",
...(30)> "</div> : discarded"
...(30)> ] |> as_ast(annotations: " : ")
{:ok, [{"div", [], ["  <span>text</span>"], %{annotation: " : annotation", verbatim: true}}], []}

Commenting your Markdown

Although many markdown elements do not support annotations yet, they can be used to comment your markdown, w/o cluttering the generated AST with comments

iex(31)> [
...(31)> "# Headline --> first line",
...(31)> "- item1 --> a list item",
...(31)> "- item2 --> another list item",
...(31)> "",
...(31)> "<http://somewhere/to/go> --> do not go there"
...(31)> ] |> as_ast(annotations: "-->")
{:ok, [
  {"h1", [], ["Headline"], %{}},
  {"ul", [], [{"li", [], ["item1 "], %{}}, {"li", [], ["item2 "], %{}}], %{}},
  {"p", [], [{"a", [{"href", "http://somewhere/to/go"}], ["http://somewhere/to/go"], %{}}, " "], %{annotation: "--> do not go there"}}
  ], []

Link to this section Summary


iex(32)> markdown = "My `code` is **best**"
...(32)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
...(32)> ast
[{"p", [], ["My ", {"code", [{"class", "inline"}], ["code"], %{}}, " is ", {"strong", [], ["best"], %{}}], %{}}]

iex(33)> markdown = "```elixir\nIO.puts 42\n```"
...(33)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown, code_class_prefix: "lang-")
...(33)> ast
[{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir lang-elixir"}], ["IO.puts 42"], %{}}], %{}}]


Accesses current hex version of the EarmarkParser application. Convenience for iex usage.

Link to this section Types


ast() :: [ast_node()]


ast_attribute() :: {ast_attribute_name(), ast_attribute_value()}


ast_attribute_name() :: binary()


ast_attribute_value() :: binary()


ast_attributes() :: [ast_attribute()]


ast_meta() :: map()


ast_node() :: binary() | ast_tuple()


ast_tag() :: binary()


ast_tuple() :: {ast_tag(), ast_attributes(), ast(), ast_meta()}

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function

as_ast(lines, options \\ %Options{})

View Source
iex(32)> markdown = "My `code` is **best**"
...(32)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
...(32)> ast
[{"p", [], ["My ", {"code", [{"class", "inline"}], ["code"], %{}}, " is ", {"strong", [], ["best"], %{}}], %{}}]

iex(33)> markdown = "```elixir\nIO.puts 42\n```"
...(33)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown, code_class_prefix: "lang-")
...(33)> ast
[{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir lang-elixir"}], ["IO.puts 42"], %{}}], %{}}]


The AST is exposed in the spirit of Floki's.

Accesses current hex version of the EarmarkParser application. Convenience for iex usage.