View Source URI (Elixir v1.13.1)

Utilities for working with URIs.

This module provides functions for working with URIs (for example, parsing URIs or encoding query strings). The functions in this module are implemented according to RFC 3986.

URIs are structs behind the scenes. You can access the URI fields directly but you should not create a new URI directly via the struct syntax. Instead use the functions in this module.

Link to this section Summary

Types

authority() deprecated
t()

Functions

Checks if character is a reserved one in a URI.

Checks if character is allowed unescaped in a URI.

Checks if character is an unreserved one in a URI.

Percent-unescapes a URI.

Decodes string as "x-www-form-urlencoded".

Returns the default port for a given scheme.

Registers the default port for the given scheme.

Percent-escapes all characters that require escaping in string.

Encodes enumerable into a query string using encoding.

Encodes string as "x-www-form-urlencoded".

Merges two URIs.

Similar to new/0 but raises URI.Error if an invalid string is given.

Creates a new URI struct from a URI or a string.

Parses a URI into its components, without further validation.

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query.

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct.

Link to this section Types

This opaque is deprecated. The authority field is deprecated.
@opaque authority()
@type t() :: %URI{
  authority: authority(),
  fragment: nil | binary(),
  host: nil | binary(),
  path: nil | binary(),
  port: nil | :inet.port_number(),
  query: nil | binary(),
  scheme: nil | binary(),
  userinfo: nil | binary()
}

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function

char_reserved?(character)

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@spec char_reserved?(byte()) :: boolean()

Checks if character is a reserved one in a URI.

As specified in RFC 3986, section 2.2, the following characters are reserved: :, /, ?, #, [, ], @, !, $, &, ', (, ), *, +, ,, ;, =

examples

Examples

iex> URI.char_reserved?(?+)
true
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char_unescaped?(character)

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@spec char_unescaped?(byte()) :: boolean()

Checks if character is allowed unescaped in a URI.

This is the default used by URI.encode/2 where both reserved and unreserved characters are kept unescaped.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.char_unescaped?(?{)
false
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char_unreserved?(character)

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@spec char_unreserved?(byte()) :: boolean()

Checks if character is an unreserved one in a URI.

As specified in RFC 3986, section 2.3, the following characters are unreserved:

  • Alphanumeric characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9
  • ~, _, -, .

examples

Examples

iex> URI.char_unreserved?(?_)
true
@spec decode(binary()) :: binary()

Percent-unescapes a URI.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.decode("https%3A%2F%2Felixir-lang.org")
"https://elixir-lang.org"
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decode_query(query, map \\ %{}, encoding \\ :www_form)

View Source
@spec decode_query(binary(), %{optional(binary()) => binary()}, :rfc3986 | :www_form) ::
  %{
    optional(binary()) => binary()
  }

Decodes query into a map.

Given a query string in the form of key1=value1&key2=value2..., this function inserts each key-value pair in the query string as one entry in the given map. Keys and values in the resulting map will be binaries. Keys and values will be percent-unescaped.

You can specify one of the following encoding options:

  • :www_form - (default, since v1.12.0) keys and values are decoded as per decode_www_form/1. This is the format typically used by browsers on query strings and form data. It decodes "+" as " ".

  • :rfc3986 - (since v1.12.0) keys and values are decoded as per decode/1. The result is the same as :www_form except for leaving "+" as is in line with RFC 3986.

Encoding defaults to :www_form for backward compatibility.

Use query_decoder/1 if you want to iterate over each value manually.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.decode_query("foo=1&bar=2")
%{"bar" => "2", "foo" => "1"}

iex> URI.decode_query("percent=oh+yes%21", %{"starting" => "map"})
%{"percent" => "oh yes!", "starting" => "map"}

iex> URI.decode_query("percent=oh+yes%21", %{}, :rfc3986)
%{"percent" => "oh+yes!"}
@spec decode_www_form(binary()) :: binary()

Decodes string as "x-www-form-urlencoded".

Note "x-www-form-urlencoded" is not specified as part of RFC 3986. However, it is a commonly used format to encode query strings and form data by browsers.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.decode_www_form("%3Call+in%2F")
"<all in/"
@spec default_port(binary()) :: nil | non_neg_integer()

Returns the default port for a given scheme.

If the scheme is unknown to the URI module, this function returns nil. The default port for any scheme can be configured globally via default_port/2.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.default_port("ftp")
21

iex> URI.default_port("ponzi")
nil
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default_port(scheme, port)

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@spec default_port(binary(), non_neg_integer()) :: :ok

Registers the default port for the given scheme.

After this function is called, port will be returned by default_port/1 for the given scheme scheme. Note that this function changes the default port for the given scheme globally, meaning for every application.

It is recommended for this function to be invoked in your application's start callback in case you want to register new URIs.

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encode(string, predicate \\ &char_unescaped?/1)

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@spec encode(binary(), (byte() -> as_boolean(term()))) :: binary()

Percent-escapes all characters that require escaping in string.

This means reserved characters, such as : and /, and the so-called unreserved characters, which have the same meaning both escaped and unescaped, won't be escaped by default.

See encode_www_form/1 if you are interested in escaping reserved characters too.

This function also accepts a predicate function as an optional argument. If passed, this function will be called with each byte in string as its argument and should return a truthy value (anything other than false or nil) if the given byte should be left as is, or return a falsy value (false or nil) if the character should be escaped. Defaults to URI.char_unescaped?/1.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.encode("ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put it+й")
"ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put%20it+%D0%B9"

iex> URI.encode("a string", &(&1 != ?i))
"a str%69ng"
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encode_query(enumerable, encoding \\ :www_form)

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@spec encode_query(Enum.t(), :rfc3986 | :www_form) :: binary()

Encodes enumerable into a query string using encoding.

Takes an enumerable that enumerates as a list of two-element tuples (for instance, a map or a keyword list) and returns a string in the form of key1=value1&key2=value2....

Keys and values can be any term that implements the String.Chars protocol with the exception of lists, which are explicitly forbidden.

You can specify one of the following encoding strategies:

  • :www_form - (default, since v1.12.0) keys and values are URL encoded as per encode_www_form/1. This is the format typically used by browsers on query strings and form data. It encodes " " as "+".

  • :rfc3986 - (since v1.12.0) the same as :www_form except it encodes " " as "%20" according RFC 3986. This is the best option if you are encoding in a non-browser situation, since encoding spaces as "+" can be ambiguous to URI parsers. This can inadvertently lead to spaces being interpreted as literal plus signs.

Encoding defaults to :www_form for backward compatibility.

examples

Examples

iex> query = %{"foo" => 1, "bar" => 2}
iex> URI.encode_query(query)
"bar=2&foo=1"

iex> query = %{"key" => "value with spaces"}
iex> URI.encode_query(query)
"key=value+with+spaces"

iex> query = %{"key" => "value with spaces"}
iex> URI.encode_query(query, :rfc3986)
"key=value%20with%20spaces"

iex> URI.encode_query(%{key: [:a, :list]})
** (ArgumentError) encode_query/2 values cannot be lists, got: [:a, :list]
@spec encode_www_form(binary()) :: binary()

Encodes string as "x-www-form-urlencoded".

Note "x-www-form-urlencoded" is not specified as part of RFC 3986. However, it is a commonly used format to encode query strings and form data by browsers.

example

Example

iex> URI.encode_www_form("put: it+й")
"put%3A+it%2B%D0%B9"
@spec merge(t() | binary(), t() | binary()) :: t()

Merges two URIs.

This function merges two URIs as per RFC 3986, section 5.2.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.merge(URI.parse("http://google.com"), "/query") |> to_string()
"http://google.com/query"

iex> URI.merge("http://example.com", "http://google.com") |> to_string()
"http://google.com"
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new!(uri)

View Source (since 1.13.0)
@spec new!(t() | String.t()) :: t()

Similar to new/0 but raises URI.Error if an invalid string is given.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.new!("https://elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}

iex> URI.new!("/invalid_greater_than_in_path/>")
** (URI.Error) cannot parse due to reason invalid_uri: ">"

Giving an existing URI simply returns it:

iex> uri = URI.new!("https://elixir-lang.org/")
iex> URI.new!(uri)
%URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}
@spec new(t() | String.t()) :: {:ok, t()} | {:error, String.t()}

Creates a new URI struct from a URI or a string.

If a %URI{} struct is given, it returns {:ok, uri}. If a string is given, it will parse and validate it. If the string is valid, it returns {:ok, uri}, otherwise it returns {:error, part} with the invalid part of the URI. For parsing URIs without further validation, see parse/1.

This function can parse both absolute and relative URLs. You can check if a URI is absolute or relative by checking if the scheme field is nil or not.

When a URI is given without a port, the value returned by URI.default_port/1 for the URI's scheme is used for the :port field. The scheme is also normalized to lowercase.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.new("https://elixir-lang.org/")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("//elixir-lang.org/")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("/foo/bar")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "/foo/bar",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("foo/bar")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "foo/bar",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("//[fe80::]/")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "fe80::",
  path: "/",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("https:?query")
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: nil,
  port: 443,
  query: "query",
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}}

iex> URI.new("/invalid_greater_than_in_path/>")
{:error, ">"}

Giving an existing URI simply returns it wrapped in a tuple:

iex> {:ok, uri} = URI.new("https://elixir-lang.org/")
iex> URI.new(uri)
{:ok, %URI{
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}}
@spec parse(t() | binary()) :: t()

Parses a URI into its components, without further validation.

This function can parse both absolute and relative URLs. You can check if a URI is absolute or relative by checking if the scheme field is nil or not. Furthermore, this function expects both absolute and relative URIs to be well-formed and does not perform any validation. See the "Examples" section below. Use new/1 if you want more strict validation.

When a URI is given without a port, the value returned by URI.default_port/1 for the URI's scheme is used for the :port field. The scheme is also normalized to lowercase.

If a %URI{} struct is given to this function, this function returns it unmodified.

Note: this function sets the field :authority for backwards compatibility reasons but it is deprecated.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.parse("https://elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{
  authority: "elixir-lang.org",
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
}

iex> URI.parse("//elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{
  authority: "elixir-lang.org",
  fragment: nil,
  host: "elixir-lang.org",
  path: "/",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}

iex> URI.parse("/foo/bar")
%URI{
  authority: nil,
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "/foo/bar",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}

iex> URI.parse("foo/bar")
%URI{
  authority: nil,
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "foo/bar",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}

In contrast to URI.new/1, this function will parse poorly-formed URIs, for example:

iex> URI.parse("/invalid_greater_than_in_path/>")
%URI{
  authority: nil,
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "/invalid_greater_than_in_path/>",
  port: nil,
  query: nil,
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}

Another example is a URI with brackets in query strings. It is accepted by parse/1 but it will be refused by new/1:

iex> URI.parse("/?foo[bar]=baz")
%URI{
  authority: nil,
  fragment: nil,
  host: nil,
  path: "/",
  port: nil,
  query: "foo[bar]=baz",
  scheme: nil,
  userinfo: nil
}
Link to this function

query_decoder(query, encoding \\ :www_form)

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@spec query_decoder(binary(), :rfc3986 | :www_form) :: Enumerable.t()

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query.

Key and value in each tuple will be binaries and will be percent-unescaped.

You can specify one of the following encoding options:

  • :www_form - (default, since v1.12.0) keys and values are decoded as per decode_www_form/1. This is the format typically used by browsers on query strings and form data. It decodes "+" as " ".

  • :rfc3986 - (since v1.12.0) keys and values are decoded as per decode/1. The result is the same as :www_form except for leaving "+" as is in line with RFC 3986.

Encoding defaults to :www_form for backward compatibility.

examples

Examples

iex> URI.query_decoder("foo=1&bar=2") |> Enum.to_list()
[{"foo", "1"}, {"bar", "2"}]

iex> URI.query_decoder("food=bread%26butter&drinks=tap%20water+please") |> Enum.to_list()
[{"food", "bread&butter"}, {"drinks", "tap water please"}]

iex> URI.query_decoder("food=bread%26butter&drinks=tap%20water+please", :rfc3986) |> Enum.to_list()
[{"food", "bread&butter"}, {"drinks", "tap water+please"}]
@spec to_string(t()) :: binary()

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct.

examples

Examples

iex> uri = URI.parse("http://google.com")
iex> URI.to_string(uri)
"http://google.com"

iex> uri = URI.parse("foo://bar.baz")
iex> URI.to_string(uri)
"foo://bar.baz"