Elixir v1.5.1 Regex View Source

Provides regular expressions for Elixir.

Regex is based on PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) and built on top of Erlang’s :re module. More information can be found in the :re module documentation.

Regular expressions in Elixir can be created using the sigils ~r or ~R:

# A simple regular expressions that matches foo anywhere in the string
~r/foo/

# A regular expression with case insensitive and Unicode options
~r/foo/iu

Regular expressions created via sigils are pre-compiled and stored in the .beam file. Notice this may be a problem if you are precompiling Elixir, see the “Precompilation” section for more information.

A Regex is represented internally as the Regex struct. Therefore, %Regex{} can be used whenever there is a need to match on them. Keep in mind it is not guaranteed two regular expressions from the same source are equal, for example:

~r/(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)/ == ~r/(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)/

may return true or false depending on your machine, endianess, available optimizations and others. You can, however, retrieve the source of a compiled regular expression by accessing the source field, and then compare those directly:

~r/(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)/.source == ~r/(?<foo>.)(?<bar>.)/.source

Precompilation

Regular expressions built with sigil are precompiled and stored in .beam files. This may be a problem if you are precompiling Elixir to run in different OTP releases, as OTP releases may update the underlying regular expression engine at any time.

For such reasons, we always recomend precompiling Elixir projects using the OTP version meant to run in production. In case cross-compilation is really necessary, you can manually invoke Regex.recompile/1 or Regex. recompile!/1 to perform a runtime version check and recompile the regex if necessary.

Modifiers

The modifiers available when creating a Regex are:

  • unicode (u) - enables Unicode specific patterns like \p and change modifiers like \w, \W, \s and friends to also match on Unicode. It expects valid Unicode strings to be given on match

  • caseless (i) - adds case insensitivity

  • dotall (s) - causes dot to match newlines and also set newline to anycrlf; the new line setting can be overridden by setting (*CR) or (*LF) or (*CRLF) or (*ANY) according to re documentation

  • multiline (m) - causes ^ and $ to mark the beginning and end of each line; use \A and \z to match the end or beginning of the string

  • extended (x) - whitespace characters are ignored except when escaped and allow # to delimit comments

  • firstline (f) - forces the unanchored pattern to match before or at the first newline, though the matched text may continue over the newline

  • ungreedy (U) - inverts the “greediness” of the regexp (the previous r option is deprecated in favor of U)

The options not available are:

  • anchored - not available, use ^ or \A instead
  • dollar_endonly - not available, use \z instead
  • no_auto_capture - not available, use ?: instead
  • newline - not available, use (*CR) or (*LF) or (*CRLF) or (*ANYCRLF) or (*ANY) at the beginning of the regexp according to the re documentation

Captures

Many functions in this module handle what to capture in a regex match via the :capture option. The supported values are:

  • :all - all captured subpatterns including the complete matching string (this is the default)

  • :first - only the first captured subpattern, which is always the complete matching part of the string; all explicitly captured subpatterns are discarded

  • :all_but_first- all but the first matching subpattern, i.e. all explicitly captured subpatterns, but not the complete matching part of the string

  • :none - does not return matching subpatterns at all

  • :all_names - captures all names in the Regex

  • list(binary) - a list of named captures to capture

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Compiles the regular expression

Compiles the regular expression and raises Regex.CompileError in case of errors

Escapes a string to be literally matched in a regex

Returns a boolean indicating whether there was a match or not

Returns the given captures as a map or nil if no captures are found. The option :return can be set to :index to get indexes back

Returns a list of names in the regex

Returns the regex options as a string

Returns the underlying re_pattern in the regular expression

Recompiles the existing regular expression if necessary

Recompiles the existing regular expression and raises Regex.CompileError in case of errors

Returns true if the given term is a regex. Otherwise returns false

Receives a regex, a binary and a replacement, returns a new binary where all matches are replaced by the replacement

Runs the regular expression against the given string until the first match. It returns a list with all captures or nil if no match occurred

Same as run/3, but scans the target several times collecting all matches of the regular expression

Returns the regex source as a binary

Splits the given target based on the given pattern and in the given number of parts

Returns the version of the underlying Regex engine

Link to this section Types

Link to this type t() View Source
t() :: %Regex{opts: binary, re_pattern: term, re_version: term, source: binary}

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function compile(source, options \\ "") View Source
compile(binary, binary | [term]) :: {:ok, t} | {:error, any}

Compiles the regular expression.

The given options can either be a binary with the characters representing the same regex options given to the ~r sigil, or a list of options, as expected by the Erlang’s :re module.

It returns {:ok, regex} in case of success, {:error, reason} otherwise.

Examples

iex> Regex.compile("foo")
{:ok, ~r"foo"}

iex> Regex.compile("*foo")
{:error, {'nothing to repeat', 0}}
Link to this function compile!(source, options \\ "") View Source
compile!(binary, binary | [term]) :: t

Compiles the regular expression and raises Regex.CompileError in case of errors.

Escapes a string to be literally matched in a regex.

Examples

iex> Regex.escape(".")
"\\."

iex> Regex.escape("\\what if")
"\\\\what\\ if"
Link to this function match?(regex, string) View Source
match?(t, String.t) :: boolean

Returns a boolean indicating whether there was a match or not.

Examples

iex> Regex.match?(~r/foo/, "foo")
true

iex> Regex.match?(~r/foo/, "bar")
false
Link to this function named_captures(regex, string, options \\ []) View Source
named_captures(t, String.t, [term]) :: map | nil

Returns the given captures as a map or nil if no captures are found. The option :return can be set to :index to get indexes back.

Examples

iex> Regex.named_captures(~r/c(?<foo>d)/, "abcd")
%{"foo" => "d"}

iex> Regex.named_captures(~r/a(?<foo>b)c(?<bar>d)/, "abcd")
%{"bar" => "d", "foo" => "b"}

iex> Regex.named_captures(~r/a(?<foo>b)c(?<bar>d)/, "efgh")
nil

Returns a list of names in the regex.

Examples

iex> Regex.names(~r/(?<foo>bar)/)
["foo"]

Returns the regex options as a string.

Examples

iex> Regex.opts(~r(foo)m)
"m"
Link to this function re_pattern(regex) View Source
re_pattern(t) :: term

Returns the underlying re_pattern in the regular expression.

Link to this function recompile(regex) View Source
recompile(t) :: t

Recompiles the existing regular expression if necessary.

This checks the version stored in the regular expression and recompiles the regex in case of version mismatch.

Link to this function recompile!(regex) View Source
recompile!(t) :: t

Recompiles the existing regular expression and raises Regex.CompileError in case of errors.

Link to this function regex?(term) View Source
regex?(any) :: boolean

Returns true if the given term is a regex. Otherwise returns false.

Examples

iex> Regex.regex?(~r/foo/)
true

iex> Regex.regex?(0)
false
Link to this function replace(regex, string, replacement, options \\ []) View Source
replace(t, String.t, String.t | (... -> String.t), [term]) :: String.t

Receives a regex, a binary and a replacement, returns a new binary where all matches are replaced by the replacement.

The replacement can be either a string or a function. The string is used as a replacement for every match and it allows specific captures to be accessed via \N or \g{N}, where N is the capture. In case \0 is used, the whole match is inserted. Note that in regexes the backslash needs to be escaped, hence in practice you’ll need to use \\N and \\g{N}.

When the replacement is a function, the function may have arity N where each argument maps to a capture, with the first argument being the whole match. If the function expects more arguments than captures found, the remaining arguments will receive "".

Options

  • :global - when false, replaces only the first occurrence (defaults to true)

Examples

iex> Regex.replace(~r/d/, "abc", "d")
"abc"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/b/, "abc", "d")
"adc"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/b/, "abc", "[\\0]")
"a[b]c"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/a(b|d)c/, "abcadc", "[\\1]")
"[b][d]"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/\.(\d)$/, "500.5", ".\\g{1}0")
"500.50"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/a(b|d)c/, "abcadc", fn _, x -> "[#{x}]" end)
"[b][d]"

iex> Regex.replace(~r/a/, "abcadc", "A", global: false)
"Abcadc"
Link to this function run(regex, string, options \\ []) View Source
run(t, binary, [term]) ::
  nil |
  [binary] |
  [{integer, integer}]

Runs the regular expression against the given string until the first match. It returns a list with all captures or nil if no match occurred.

Options

  • :return - sets to :index to return indexes. Defaults to :binary.
  • :capture - what to capture in the result. Check the moduledoc for Regex to see the possible capture values.

Examples

iex> Regex.run(~r/c(d)/, "abcd")
["cd", "d"]

iex> Regex.run(~r/e/, "abcd")
nil

iex> Regex.run(~r/c(d)/, "abcd", return: :index)
[{2, 2}, {3, 1}]
Link to this function scan(regex, string, options \\ []) View Source
scan(t, String.t, [term]) :: [[String.t]]

Same as run/3, but scans the target several times collecting all matches of the regular expression.

A list of lists is returned, where each entry in the primary list represents a match and each entry in the secondary list represents the captured contents.

Options

  • :return - sets to :index to return indexes. Defaults to :binary.
  • :capture - what to capture in the result. Check the moduledoc for Regex to see the possible capture values.

Examples

iex> Regex.scan(~r/c(d|e)/, "abcd abce")
[["cd", "d"], ["ce", "e"]]

iex> Regex.scan(~r/c(?:d|e)/, "abcd abce")
[["cd"], ["ce"]]

iex> Regex.scan(~r/e/, "abcd")
[]

iex> Regex.scan(~r/\p{Sc}/u, "$, £, and €")
[["$"], ["£"], ["€"]]

Returns the regex source as a binary.

Examples

iex> Regex.source(~r(foo))
"foo"
Link to this function split(regex, string, options \\ []) View Source
split(t, String.t, [term]) :: [String.t]

Splits the given target based on the given pattern and in the given number of parts.

Options

  • :parts - when specified, splits the string into the given number of parts. If not specified, :parts defaults to :infinity, which will split the string into the maximum number of parts possible based on the given pattern.

  • :trim - when true, removes empty strings ("") from the result.

  • :on - specifies which captures to split the string on, and in what order. Defaults to :first which means captures inside the regex do not affect the splitting process.

  • :include_captures - when true, includes in the result the matches of the regular expression. Defaults to false.

Examples

iex> Regex.split(~r{-}, "a-b-c")
["a", "b", "c"]

iex> Regex.split(~r{-}, "a-b-c", [parts: 2])
["a", "b-c"]

iex> Regex.split(~r{-}, "abc")
["abc"]

iex> Regex.split(~r{}, "abc")
["a", "b", "c", ""]

iex> Regex.split(~r{a(?<second>b)c}, "abc")
["", ""]

iex> Regex.split(~r{a(?<second>b)c}, "abc", on: [:second])
["a", "c"]

iex> Regex.split(~r{(x)}, "Elixir", include_captures: true)
["Eli", "x", "ir"]

iex> Regex.split(~r{a(?<second>b)c}, "abc", on: [:second], include_captures: true)
["a", "b", "c"]

Returns the version of the underlying Regex engine.