Elixir v1.9.4 Task View Source

Conveniences for spawning and awaiting tasks.

Tasks are processes meant to execute one particular action throughout their lifetime, often with little or no communication with other processes. The most common use case for tasks is to convert sequential code into concurrent code by computing a value asynchronously:

task = Task.async(fn -> do_some_work() end)
res = do_some_other_work()
res + Task.await(task)

Tasks spawned with async can be awaited on by their caller process (and only their caller) as shown in the example above. They are implemented by spawning a process that sends a message to the caller once the given computation is performed.

Besides async/1 and await/2, tasks can also be started as part of a supervision tree and dynamically spawned on remote nodes. We will explore all three scenarios next.

async and await

One of the common uses of tasks is to convert sequential code into concurrent code with Task.async/1 while keeping its semantics. When invoked, a new process will be created, linked and monitored by the caller. Once the task action finishes, a message will be sent to the caller with the result.

Task.await/2 is used to read the message sent by the task.

There are two important things to consider when using async:

  1. If you are using async tasks, you must await a reply as they are always sent. If you are not expecting a reply, consider using Task.start_link/1 detailed below.

  2. async tasks link the caller and the spawned process. This means that, if the caller crashes, the task will crash too and vice-versa. This is on purpose: if the process meant to receive the result no longer exists, there is no purpose in completing the computation.

    If this is not desired, use Task.start/1 or consider starting the task under a Task.Supervisor using async_nolink or start_child.

Task.yield/2 is an alternative to await/2 where the caller will temporarily block, waiting until the task replies or crashes. If the result does not arrive within the timeout, it can be called again at a later moment. This allows checking for the result of a task multiple times. If a reply does not arrive within the desired time, Task.shutdown/2 can be used to stop the task.

Supervised tasks

It is also possible to spawn a task under a supervisor. The Task module implements the child_spec/1 function, which allows it to be started directly under a supervisor by passing a tuple with a function to run:

Supervisor.start_link([
  {Task, fn -> :some_work end}
], strategy: :one_for_one)

However, if you want to invoke a specific module, function and arguments, or give the task process a name, you need to define the task in its own module:

defmodule MyTask do
  use Task

  def start_link(arg) do
    Task.start_link(__MODULE__, :run, [arg])
  end

  def run(arg) do
    # ...
  end
end

And then passing it to the supervisor:

Supervisor.start_link([
  {MyTask, arg}
], strategy: :one_for_one)

Since these tasks are supervised and not directly linked to the caller, they cannot be awaited on. start_link/1, unlike async/1, returns {:ok, pid} (which is the result expected by supervisors).

use Task defines a child_spec/1 function, allowing the defined module to be put under a supervision tree. The generated child_spec/1 can be customized with the following options:

  • :id - the child specification identifier, defaults to the current module
  • :restart - when the child should be restarted, defaults to :temporary
  • :shutdown - how to shut down the child, either immediately or by giving it time to shut down

Opposite to GenServer, Agent and Supervisor, a Task has a default :restart of :temporary. This means the task will not be restarted even if it crashes. If you desire the task to be restarted for non-successful exits, do:

use Task, restart: :transient

If you want the task to always be restarted:

use Task, restart: :permanent

See the "Child specification" section in the Supervisor module for more detailed information. The @doc annotation immediately preceding use Task will be attached to the generated child_spec/1 function.

Dynamically supervised tasks

The Task.Supervisor module allows developers to dynamically create multiple supervised tasks.

A short example is:

{:ok, pid} = Task.Supervisor.start_link()

task =
  Task.Supervisor.async(pid, fn ->
    # Do something
  end)

Task.await(task)

However, in the majority of cases, you want to add the task supervisor to your supervision tree:

Supervisor.start_link([
  {Task.Supervisor, name: MyApp.TaskSupervisor}
], strategy: :one_for_one)

Now you can dynamically start supervised tasks:

Task.Supervisor.start_child(MyApp.TaskSupervisor, fn ->
  # Do something
end)

Or even use the async/await pattern:

Task.Supervisor.async(MyApp.TaskSupervisor, fn ->
  # Do something
end)
|> Task.await()

Finally, check Task.Supervisor for other supported operations.

Distributed tasks

Since Elixir provides a Task.Supervisor, it is easy to use one to dynamically start tasks across nodes:

# On the remote node
Task.Supervisor.start_link(name: MyApp.DistSupervisor)

# On the client
supervisor = {MyApp.DistSupervisor, :remote@local}
Task.Supervisor.async(supervisor, MyMod, :my_fun, [arg1, arg2, arg3])

Note that, when working with distributed tasks, one should use the Task.Supervisor.async/4 function that expects explicit module, function and arguments, instead of Task.Supervisor.async/2 that works with anonymous functions. That's because anonymous functions expect the same module version to exist on all involved nodes. Check the Agent module documentation for more information on distributed processes as the limitations described there apply to the whole ecosystem.

Ancestor and Caller Tracking

Whenever you start a new process, Elixir annotates the parent of that process through the $ancestors key in the process dictionary. This is often used to track the hierarchy inside a supervision tree.

For example, we recommend developers to always start tasks under a supervisor. This provides more visibility and allows you to control how those tasks are terminated when a node shuts down. That might look something like Task.Supervisor.start_child(MySupervisor, task_specification). This means that, although your code is the one who invokes the task, the actual ancestor of the task is the supervisor, as the supervisor is the one effectively starting it.

To track the relationship between your code and the task, we use the $callers key in the process dictionary. Therefore, assuming the Task.Supervisor call above, we have:

[your code] -- calls --> [supervisor] ---- spawns --> [task]

Which means we store the following relationships:

[your code]              [supervisor] <-- ancestor -- [task]
    ^                                                  |
    |--------------------- caller ---------------------|

The list of callers of the current process can be retrieved from the Process dictionary with Process.get(:"$callers"). This will return either nil or a list [pid_n, ..., pid2, pid1] with at least one entry Where pid_n is the PID that called the current process, pid2 called pid_n, and pid2 was called by pid1.

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Types

t()

The Task type.

Functions

The Task struct.

Starts a task that must be awaited on.

Starts a task that must be awaited on.

Returns a stream that runs the given function fun concurrently on each element in enumerable.

Returns a stream where the given function (module and function_name) is mapped concurrently on each element in enumerable.

Awaits a task reply and returns it.

Returns a specification to start a task under a supervisor.

Unlinks and shuts down the task, and then checks for a reply.

Starts a task.

Starts a process linked to the current process.

Starts a task as part of a supervision tree.

Temporarily blocks the current process waiting for a task reply.

Yields to multiple tasks in the given time interval.

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t()

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t() :: %Task{owner: pid() | nil, pid: pid() | nil, ref: reference() | nil}

The Task type.

See %Task{} for information about each field of the structure.

Link to this section Functions

The Task struct.

It contains these fields:

  • :pid - the PID of the task process; nil if the task does not use a task process

  • :ref - the task monitor reference

  • :owner - the PID of the process that started the task

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async(fun)

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async((() -> any())) :: t()

Starts a task that must be awaited on.

fun must be a zero-arity anonymous function. This function spawns a process that is linked to and monitored by the caller process. A Task struct is returned containing the relevant information.

Read the Task module documentation for more information about the general usage of async/1 and async/3.

See also async/3.

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async(module, function_name, args)

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async(module(), atom(), [term()]) :: t()

Starts a task that must be awaited on.

A Task struct is returned containing the relevant information. Developers must eventually call Task.await/2 or Task.yield/2 followed by Task.shutdown/2 on the returned task.

Read the Task module documentation for more information about the general usage of async/1 and async/3.

Linking

This function spawns a process that is linked to and monitored by the caller process. The linking part is important because it aborts the task if the parent process dies. It also guarantees the code before async/await has the same properties after you add the async call. For example, imagine you have this:

x = heavy_fun()
y = some_fun()
x + y

Now you want to make the heavy_fun() async:

x = Task.async(&heavy_fun/0)
y = some_fun()
Task.await(x) + y

As before, if heavy_fun/0 fails, the whole computation will fail, including the parent process. If you don't want the task to fail then you must change the heavy_fun/0 code in the same way you would achieve it if you didn't have the async call. For example, to either return {:ok, val} | :error results or, in more extreme cases, by using try/rescue. In other words, an asynchronous task should be thought of as an extension of a process rather than a mechanism to isolate it from all errors.

If you don't want to link the caller to the task, then you must use a supervised task with Task.Supervisor and call Task.Supervisor.async_nolink/2.

In any case, avoid any of the following:

  • Setting :trap_exit to true - trapping exits should be used only in special circumstances as it would make your process immune to not only exits from the task but from any other processes.

    Moreover, even when trapping exits, calling await will still exit if the task has terminated without sending its result back.

  • Unlinking the task process started with async/await. If you unlink the processes and the task does not belong to any supervisor, you may leave dangling tasks in case the parent dies.

Message format

The reply sent by the task will be in the format {ref, result}, where ref is the monitor reference held by the task struct and result is the return value of the task function.

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async_stream(enumerable, fun, options \\ [])

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async_stream(Enumerable.t(), (term() -> term()), keyword()) :: Enumerable.t()

Returns a stream that runs the given function fun concurrently on each element in enumerable.

Works the same as async_stream/5 but with an anonymous function instead of a module-function-arguments tuple. fun must be a one-arity anonymous function.

Each enumerable element is passed as argument to the given function fun and processed by its own task. The tasks will be linked to the current process, similarly to async/1.

Example

Count the code points in each string asynchronously, then add the counts together using reduce.

iex> strings = ["long string", "longer string", "there are many of these"]
iex> stream = Task.async_stream(strings, fn text -> text |> String.codepoints() |> Enum.count() end)
iex> Enum.reduce(stream, 0, fn {:ok, num}, acc -> num + acc end)
47

See async_stream/5 for discussion, options, and more examples.

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async_stream(enumerable, module, function_name, args, options \\ [])

View Source (since 1.4.0)
async_stream(Enumerable.t(), module(), atom(), [term()], keyword()) ::
  Enumerable.t()

Returns a stream where the given function (module and function_name) is mapped concurrently on each element in enumerable.

Each element of enumerable will be prepended to the given args and processed by its own task. The tasks will be linked to an intermediate process that is then linked to the current process. This means a failure in a task terminates the current process and a failure in the current process terminates all tasks.

When streamed, each task will emit {:ok, value} upon successful completion or {:exit, reason} if the caller is trapping exits. The order of results depends on the value of the :ordered option.

The level of concurrency and the time tasks are allowed to run can be controlled via options (see the "Options" section below).

Consider using Task.Supervisor.async_stream/6 to start tasks under a supervisor. If you find yourself trapping exits to handle exits inside the async stream, consider using Task.Supervisor.async_stream_nolink/6 to start tasks that are not linked to the calling process.

Options

  • :max_concurrency - sets the maximum number of tasks to run at the same time. Defaults to System.schedulers_online/0.

  • :ordered - whether the results should be returned in the same order as the input stream. This option is useful when you have large streams and don't want to buffer results before they are delivered. This is also useful when you're using the tasks for side effects. Defaults to true.

  • :timeout - the maximum amount of time (in milliseconds) each task is allowed to execute for. Defaults to 5000.

  • :on_timeout - what to do when a task times out. The possible values are:

    • :exit (default) - the process that spawned the tasks exits.
    • :kill_task - the task that timed out is killed. The value emitted for that task is {:exit, :timeout}.

Example

Let's build a stream and then enumerate it:

stream = Task.async_stream(collection, Mod, :expensive_fun, [])
Enum.to_list(stream)

The concurrency can be increased or decreased using the :max_concurrency option. For example, if the tasks are IO heavy, the value can be increased:

max_concurrency = System.schedulers_online() * 2
stream = Task.async_stream(collection, Mod, :expensive_fun, [], max_concurrency: max_concurrency)
Enum.to_list(stream)

If you do not care about the results of the computation, you can run the stream with Stream.run/1. Also set ordered: false, as you don't care about the order of the results either:

stream = Task.async_stream(collection, Mod, :expensive_fun, [], ordered: false)
Stream.run(stream)
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await(task, timeout \\ 5000)

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await(t(), timeout()) :: term()

Awaits a task reply and returns it.

In case the task process dies, the current process will exit with the same reason as the task.

A timeout in milliseconds or :infinity, can be given with a default value of 5000. If the timeout is exceeded, then the current process will exit. If the task process is linked to the current process which is the case when a task is started with async, then the task process will also exit. If the task process is trapping exits or not linked to the current process, then it will continue to run.

This function assumes the task's monitor is still active or the monitor's :DOWN message is in the message queue. If it has been demonitored, or the message already received, this function will wait for the duration of the timeout awaiting the message.

This function can only be called once for any given task. If you want to be able to check multiple times if a long-running task has finished its computation, use yield/2 instead.

Compatibility with OTP behaviours

It is not recommended to await a long-running task inside an OTP behaviour such as GenServer. Instead, you should match on the message coming from a task inside your GenServer.handle_info/2 callback. For more information on the format of the message, see the documentation for async/1.

Examples

iex> task = Task.async(fn -> 1 + 1 end)
iex> Task.await(task)
2
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child_spec(arg)

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child_spec(term()) :: Supervisor.child_spec()

Returns a specification to start a task under a supervisor.

arg is passed as the argument to Task.start_link/1 in the :start field of the spec.

For more information, see the Supervisor module, the Supervisor.child_spec/2 function and the Supervisor.child_spec/0 type.

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shutdown(task, shutdown \\ 5000)

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shutdown(t(), timeout() | :brutal_kill) :: {:ok, term()} | {:exit, term()} | nil

Unlinks and shuts down the task, and then checks for a reply.

Returns {:ok, reply} if the reply is received while shutting down the task, {:exit, reason} if the task died, otherwise nil.

The second argument is either a timeout or :brutal_kill. In case of a timeout, a :shutdown exit signal is sent to the task process and if it does not exit within the timeout, it is killed. With :brutal_kill the task is killed straight away. In case the task terminates abnormally (possibly killed by another process), this function will exit with the same reason.

It is not required to call this function when terminating the caller, unless exiting with reason :normal or if the task is trapping exits. If the caller is exiting with a reason other than :normal and the task is not trapping exits, the caller's exit signal will stop the task. The caller can exit with reason :shutdown to shut down all of its linked processes, including tasks, that are not trapping exits without generating any log messages.

If a task's monitor has already been demonitored or received and there is not a response waiting in the message queue this function will return {:exit, :noproc} as the result or exit reason can not be determined.

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start(fun)

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start((() -> any())) :: {:ok, pid()}

Starts a task.

fun must be a zero-arity anonymous function.

This is only used when the task is used for side-effects (i.e. no interest in the returned result) and it should not be linked to the current process.

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start(module, function_name, args)

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start(module(), atom(), [term()]) :: {:ok, pid()}

Starts a task.

This is only used when the task is used for side-effects (i.e. no interest in the returned result) and it should not be linked to the current process.

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start_link(fun)

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start_link((() -> any())) :: {:ok, pid()}

Starts a process linked to the current process.

fun must be a zero-arity anonymous function.

This is often used to start the process as part of a supervision tree.

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start_link(module, function_name, args)

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start_link(module(), atom(), [term()]) :: {:ok, pid()}

Starts a task as part of a supervision tree.

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yield(task, timeout \\ 5000)

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yield(t(), timeout()) :: {:ok, term()} | {:exit, term()} | nil

Temporarily blocks the current process waiting for a task reply.

Returns {:ok, reply} if the reply is received, nil if no reply has arrived, or {:exit, reason} if the task has already exited. Keep in mind that normally a task failure also causes the process owning the task to exit. Therefore this function can return {:exit, reason} only if

  • the task process exited with the reason :normal
  • it isn't linked to the caller
  • the caller is trapping exits

A timeout, in milliseconds or :infinity, can be given with a default value of 5000. If the time runs out before a message from the task is received, this function will return nil and the monitor will remain active. Therefore yield/2 can be called multiple times on the same task.

This function assumes the task's monitor is still active or the monitor's :DOWN message is in the message queue. If it has been demonitored or the message already received, this function will wait for the duration of the timeout awaiting the message.

If you intend to shut the task down if it has not responded within timeout milliseconds, you should chain this together with shutdown/1, like so:

case Task.yield(task, timeout) || Task.shutdown(task) do
  {:ok, result} ->
    result

  nil ->
    Logger.warn("Failed to get a result in #{timeout}ms")
    nil
end

That ensures that if the task completes after the timeout but before shutdown/1 has been called, you will still get the result, since shutdown/1 is designed to handle this case and return the result.

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yield_many(tasks, timeout \\ 5000)

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yield_many([t()], timeout()) :: [{t(), {:ok, term()} | {:exit, term()} | nil}]

Yields to multiple tasks in the given time interval.

This function receives a list of tasks and waits for their replies in the given time interval. It returns a list of two-element tuples, with the task as the first element and the yielded result as the second. The tasks in the returned list will be in the same order as the tasks supplied in the tasks input argument.

Similarly to yield/2, each task's result will be

  • {:ok, term} if the task has successfully reported its result back in the given time interval
  • {:exit, reason} if the task has died
  • nil if the task keeps running past the timeout

A timeout, in milliseconds or :infinity, can be given with a default value of 5000.

Check yield/2 for more information.

Example

Task.yield_many/2 allows developers to spawn multiple tasks and retrieve the results received in a given timeframe. If we combine it with Task.shutdown/2, it allows us to gather those results and cancel the tasks that have not replied in time.

Let's see an example.

tasks =
  for i <- 1..10 do
    Task.async(fn ->
      Process.sleep(i * 1000)
      i
    end)
  end

tasks_with_results = Task.yield_many(tasks, 5000)

results =
  Enum.map(tasks_with_results, fn {task, res} ->
    # Shut down the tasks that did not reply nor exit
    res || Task.shutdown(task, :brutal_kill)
  end)

# Here we are matching only on {:ok, value} and
# ignoring {:exit, _} (crashed tasks) and `nil` (no replies)
for {:ok, value} <- results do
  IO.inspect(value)
end

In the example above, we create tasks that sleep from 1 up to 10 seconds and return the number of seconds they slept for. If you execute the code all at once, you should see 1 up to 5 printed, as those were the tasks that have replied in the given time. All other tasks will have been shut down using the Task.shutdown/2 call.