Cldr.Interval (Cldr Dates & Times v2.10.2) View Source

Interval formats allow for software to format intervals like "Jan 10-12, 2008" as a shorter and more natural format than "Jan 10, 2008 - Jan 12, 2008". They are designed to take a start and end date, time or datetime plus a formatting pattern and use that information to produce a localized format.

The interval functions in the library will determine the calendar field with the greatest difference between the two datetimes before using the format pattern.

For example, the greatest difference in "Jan 10-12, 2008" is the day field, while the greatest difference in "Jan 10 - Feb 12, 2008" is the month field. This is used to pick the exact pattern to be used.

Interval Format Styles

CLDR provides a set of format types that map to a concrete format string. To simplify the developer experience, ex_cldr_dates_times groups these formats into styles and format types.

Format styles group different CLDR formats into similar types. These format styles can be seen by examing the output below:

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.styles
%{
  date: %{long: :y_mmm_ed, medium: :y_mm_md, short: :y_md},
  month: %{long: :mmm, medium: :mmm, short: :m},
  month_and_day: %{long: :mmm_ed, medium: :mm_md, short: :md},
  year_and_month: %{long: :y_mmmm, medium: :y_mmm, short: :y_m}
}

iex> Cldr.Time.Interval.styles
%{
  flex: %{long: :bhm, medium: :bhm, short: :bh},
  time: %{long: :hm, medium: :hm, short: :h},
  zone: %{long: :hmv, medium: :hmv, short: :hv}
}

Here the format style is the key if the map: :date, :month, :month_and_day and year_and_month.

These are then mapped to interval formats.

Interval formats

In a manner similar to formatting individual dates, times and datetimes, format types are introduced to simplify common usage. For all intervals the following format types are;

  • :short
  • :medium (the default)
  • :long

In each case, the mapping is from a style to a format type and then ot resolves to a native CLDR format map.

These maps can be examined as follows where "en" is any configured locale name and :gregorian is the underlying CLDR calendar type. In common use the :gregorian calendar is the standard. However other calendar types are also supported. For example:

iex> Cldr.known_calendars
[:buddhist, :chinese, :coptic, :dangi, :ethiopic, :ethiopic_amete_alem,
 :gregorian, :hebrew, :indian, :islamic, :islamic_civil, :islamic_rgsa,
 :islamic_tbla, :islamic_umalqura, :japanese, :persian, :roc]

To examine the available interval formats, Cldr.DateTime.Format.interval_formats/2 can be used although its use is primarily internal to the implementation of to_string/3 and would not normally be called directly.

Cldr.DateTime.Format.interval_formats "en", :gregorian
=> {:ok,
     %{
       ...
       h: %{h: ["HH – ", "HH"]},
       hm: %{h: ["HH:mm – ", "HH:mm"], m: ["HH:mm – ", "HH:mm"]},
       hmv: %{h: ["HH:mm – ", "HH:mm v"], m: ["HH:mm – ", "HH:mm v"]},
       hv: %{a: ["h a – ", "h a v"], h: ["h – ", "h a v"]},
       m: %{m: ["M – ", "M"]},
       m_ed: %{d: ["E, M/d – ", "E, M/d"], m: ["E, M/d – ", "E, M/d"]},
       md: %{d: ["M/d – ", "M/d"], m: ["M/d – ", "M/d"]},
       mm_md: %{d: ["MMM d – ", "d"], m: ["MMM d – ", "MMM d"]},
       mmm: %{m: ["MMM – ", "MMM"]},
       mmm_ed: %{d: ["E, MMM d – ", "E, MMM d"], m: ["E, MMM d – ", "E, MMM d"]},
       y: %{y: ["y – ", "y"]},
       y_m: %{m: ["M/y – ", "M/y"], y: ["M/y – ", "M/y"]},
       y_m_ed: %{
         d: ["E, M/d/y – ", "E, M/d/y"],
         m: ["E, M/d/y – ", "E, M/d/y"],
         y: ["E, M/d/y – ", "E, M/d/y"]
       },
       y_md: %{
         d: ["M/d/y – ", "M/d/y"],
         m: ["M/d/y – ", "M/d/y"],
         y: ["M/d/y – ", "M/d/y"]
       },
       y_mm_md: %{
         d: ["MMM d – ", "d, y"],
         m: ["MMM d – ", "MMM d, y"],
         y: ["MMM d, y – ", "MMM d, y"]
       },
       ...
     }
   }

At this point we can see that the path to resolving a format is:

  • Apply the format style. For dates, this is :date
  • Apply the format type. For dates, the default is :medium

This will then return a map such as:

%{
   d: ["MMM d – ", "d, y"],
   m: ["MMM d – ", "MMM d, y"],
   y: ["MMM d, y – ", "MMM d, y"]
 }

The field with the greatest difference

There remains one more choice to make - and that choice is made based upon the highest order date field that is different between the from and to dates.

With two dates 2020-02-02 and 2021-01-01 the highest order difference is :year. With 2020-02-02 and 2020-01-01 it is :month.

Formatting the interval

Using this greatest difference information we can now resolve the final format. With the :year field being the greatest difference then the format is y: ["MMM d, y – ", "MMM d, y"].

Finally, formatting can proceed for the from date being formatted with "MMM d, y – " and the to date being formatted with "MMM d, y" and the two results then being concatenated to form the final string.

Other ways to specify an interval format

So far we have considered formats that a resolved from standard styles and format types. This is the typical usage and they are specified as paramters to the to_string/3 function. For example:

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr
{:ok, "Jan 1 – 12, 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr, format: :long
{:ok, "Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr,
...> style: :month_and_day
{:ok, "Jan 1 – 12"}

Direct use of CLDR format types

It is also possible to directly specify the CLDR format type. For example:

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr, format: :gy_mm_md
{:ok, "Jan 1 – 12, 2020 AD"}

Using format strings

In the unusual situation where one of the standard format styles and types does not meet requirements, a format string can also be specified. For example:

iex> Cldr.Date.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: "E, M/d/y – E, M/d/y"
{:ok, "Wed, 1/1/2020 – Sun, 1/12/2020"}

In this case, the steps to formatting are:

  1. Split the format string at the point at which the first repeating formating code is detected. In the pattern above it is where the second E is detected. The result in this case will be ["E, M/d/y – ", "E, M/d/y"] For the purposes of splitting, duplicate are ignored. Therefore "EEE, M/d/y – E, M/d/y" will split into ["EEE, M/d/y – ", "E, M/d/y"].

  2. Each part of the pattern is parsed

  3. The two dates, times or datetimes are formatted

This is a more expensive operation than using the predefined styles and format types since the underlying formats for these types are precompiled into an efficient runtime format.

Configuring precompiled interval formats

If there is a requirement for repeated use of format strings then they can be configured in the backend module so that they are precompiled and therefore not suffer a runtime performance penaly.

In a backend module, configure the required formats as a list under the :precompile_interval_formats key:

defmodule MyApp.Cldr do
  use Cldr,
    locales: ["en", "fr"],
    default_locale: "en",
    precompile_interval_formats: ["E, MMM d/y – d/y"]
end

Link to this section Summary

Types

Any date, time or datetime

A Date.Range or CalendarInterval range

Functions

Returns a Date.Range or CalendarInterval as a localised string.

Returns a string representing the formatted interval formed by two dates.

Returns a Date.Range or CalendarInterval as a localised string or raises an exception.

Returns a string representing the formatted interval formed by two dates or raises an exception.

Link to this section Types

Specs

Any date, time or datetime

Specs

range() :: Date.Range.t() | CalendarInterval.t()

A Date.Range or CalendarInterval range

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function

to_string(from, to, backend)

View Source

Specs

to_string(range(), Cldr.backend(), Keyword.t()) ::
  {:ok, String.t()} | {:error, {module(), String.t()}}

Returns a Date.Range or CalendarInterval as a localised string.

Arguments

  • range is either a Date.Range.t returned from Date.range/2 or a CalendarInterval.t.

  • backend is any module that includes use Cldr and is therefore a Cldr backend module

  • options is a keyword list of options. The default is [].

Options

  • :format is one of :short, :medium or :long or a specific format type or a string representing of an interval format. The default is :medium.

  • :style supports dfferent formatting styles. The valid styles depends on whether formatting is for a date, time or datetime. Since the functions in this module will make a determination as to which formatter to be used based upon the data passed to them it is recommended the style option be ommitted. If styling is important then call to_string/3 directly on Cldr.Date.Interval, Cldr.Time.Interval or Cldr.DateTime.Interval.

    • For a date the alternatives are :date, :month_and_day, :month and :year_and_month. The default is :date.
    • For a time the alternatives are :time, :zone and :flex. The default is :time
    • For a datetime there are no style options, the default for each of the date and time part is used
  • locale is any valid locale name returned by Cldr.known_locale_names/0 or a Cldr.LanguageTag struct. The default is Cldr.get_locale/0

  • number_system: a number system into which the formatted date digits should be transliterated

Returns

  • {:ok, string} or

  • {:error, {exception, reason}}

Notes

Examples

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string Date.range(~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12]), MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
{:ok, "Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"}

iex> use CalendarInterval
iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~I"2020-01-01/12", MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
{:ok, "Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"}
Link to this function

to_string(from, to, backend, options \\ [])

View Source

Specs

to_string(datetime(), datetime(), Cldr.backend(), Keyword.t()) ::
  {:ok, String.t()} | {:error, {module(), String.t()}}

Returns a string representing the formatted interval formed by two dates.

Arguments

  • from is any map that conforms to the any one of the Calendar types.

  • to is any map that conforms to the any one of the Calendar types. to must occur on or after from.

  • backend is any module that includes use Cldr and is therefore a Cldr backend module

  • options is a keyword list of options. The default is [].

Options

  • :format is one of :short, :medium or :long or a specific format type or a string representing of an interval format. The default is :medium.

  • :style supports dfferent formatting styles. The valid styles depends on whether formatting is for a date, time or datetime. Since the functions in this module will make a determination as to which formatter to be used based upon the data passed to them it is recommended the style option be ommitted. If styling is important then call to_string/3 directly on Cldr.Date.Interval, Cldr.Time.Interval or Cldr.DateTime.Interval.

    • For a date the alternatives are :date, :month_and_day, :month and :year_and_month. The default is :date.
    • For a time the alternatives are :time, :zone and :flex. The default is :time
    • For a datetime there are no style options, the default for each of the date and time part is used
  • locale is any valid locale name returned by Cldr.known_locale_names/0 or a Cldr.LanguageTag struct. The default is Cldr.get_locale/0

  • number_system: a number system into which the formatted date digits should be transliterated

Returns

  • {:ok, string} or

  • {:error, {exception, reason}}

Notes

Examples

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-12-31], MyApp.Cldr
{:ok, "Jan 1 – Dec 31, 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr
{:ok, "Jan 1 – 12, 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
{:ok, "Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-12-01], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long, style: :year_and_month
{:ok, "January – December 2020"}

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~U[2020-01-01 00:00:00.0Z], ~U[2020-12-01 10:05:00.0Z], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
{:ok, "January 1, 2020 at 12:00:00 AM UTC – December 1, 2020 at 10:05:00 AM UTC"}

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string ~U[2020-01-01 00:00:00.0Z], ~U[2020-01-01 10:05:00.0Z], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
{:ok, "January 1, 2020 at 12:00:00 AM UTC – 10:05:00 AM UTC"}
Link to this function

to_string!(range, backend, options)

View Source

Specs

to_string!(range(), Cldr.backend(), Keyword.t()) :: String.t() | no_return()

Returns a Date.Range or CalendarInterval as a localised string or raises an exception.

Arguments

  • range is either a Date.Range.t returned from Date.range/2 or a CalendarInterval.t.

  • backend is any module that includes use Cldr and is therefore a Cldr backend module.

  • options is a keyword list of options. The default is [].

Options

  • :format is one of :short, :medium or :long or a specific format type or a string representing of an interval format. The default is :medium.

  • :style supports dfferent formatting styles. The valid styles depends on whether formatting is for a date, time or datetime. Since the functions in this module will make a determination as to which formatter to be used based upon the data passed to them it is recommended the style option be ommitted. If styling is important then call to_string/3 directly on Cldr.Date.Interval, Cldr.Time.Interval or Cldr.DateTime.Interval.

    • For a date the alternatives are :date, :month_and_day, :month and :year_and_month. The default is :date.
    • For a time the alternatives are :time, :zone and :flex. The default is :time.
    • For a datetime there are no style options, the default for each of the date and time part is used.
  • locale is any valid locale name returned by Cldr.known_locale_names/0 or a Cldr.LanguageTag struct. The default is Cldr.get_locale/0.

  • number_system: a number system into which the formatted date digits should be transliterated.

Returns

  • string or

  • raises an exception

Notes

Examples

iex> use CalendarInterval
iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~I"2020-01-01/12", MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
"Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! Date.range(~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12]), MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
"Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"
Link to this function

to_string!(from, to, backend, options \\ [])

View Source

Specs

to_string!(datetime(), datetime(), Cldr.backend(), Keyword.t()) ::
  String.t() | no_return()

Returns a string representing the formatted interval formed by two dates or raises an exception.

Arguments

  • from is any map that conforms to the any one of the Calendar types.

  • to is any map that conforms to the any one of the Calendar types. to must occur on or after from.

  • backend is any module that includes use Cldr and is therefore a Cldr backend module

  • options is a keyword list of options. The default is [].

Options

  • :format is one of :short, :medium or :long or a specific format type or a string representing of an interval format. The default is :medium.

  • :style supports dfferent formatting styles. The valid styles depends on whether formatting is for a date, time or datetime. Since the functions in this module will make a determination as to which formatter to be used based upon the data passed to them it is recommended the style option be ommitted. If styling is important then call to_string/3 directly on Cldr.Date.Interval, Cldr.Time.Interval or Cldr.DateTime.Interval.

    • For a date the alternatives are :date, :month_and_day, :month and :year_and_month. The default is :date.
    • For a time the alternatives are :time, :zone and :flex. The default is :time
    • For a datetime there are no style options, the default for each of the date and time part is used
  • locale is any valid locale name returned by Cldr.known_locale_names/0 or a Cldr.LanguageTag struct. The default is Cldr.get_locale/0

  • number_system: a number system into which the formatted date digits should be transliterated

Returns

  • {:ok, string} or

  • {:error, {exception, reason}}

Notes

Examples

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-12-31], MyApp.Cldr
"Jan 1 – Dec 31, 2020"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr
"Jan 1 – 12, 2020"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-01-12], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
"Wed, Jan 1 – Sun, Jan 12, 2020"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~D[2020-01-01], ~D[2020-12-01], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long, style: :year_and_month
"January – December 2020"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~U[2020-01-01 00:00:00.0Z], ~U[2020-12-01 10:05:00.0Z], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
"January 1, 2020 at 12:00:00 AM UTC – December 1, 2020 at 10:05:00 AM UTC"

iex> Cldr.Interval.to_string! ~U[2020-01-01 00:00:00.0Z], ~U[2020-01-01 10:05:00.0Z], MyApp.Cldr,
...> format: :long
"January 1, 2020 at 12:00:00 AM UTC – 10:05:00 AM UTC"