View Source Axon.Metrics (Axon v0.3.0)

Metric functions.

Metrics are used to measure the performance and compare performance of models in easy-to-understand terms. Often times, neural networks use surrogate loss functions such as negative log-likelihood to indirectly optimize a certain performance metric. Metrics such as accuracy, also called the 0-1 loss, do not have useful derivatives (e.g. they are information sparse), and are often intractable even with low input dimensions.

Despite not being able to train specifically for certain metrics, it's still useful to track these metrics to monitor the performance of a neural network during training. Metrics such as accuracy provide useful feedback during training, whereas loss can sometimes be difficult to interpret.

You can attach any of these functions as metrics within the Axon.Loop API using Axon.Loop.metric/3.

All of the functions in this module are implemented as numerical functions and can be JIT or AOT compiled with any supported Nx compiler.

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Computes the accuracy of the given predictions.

Computes the number of false negative predictions with respect to given targets.

Computes the number of false positive predictions with respect to given targets.

Calculates the mean absolute error of predictions with respect to targets.

Computes the precision of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

Computes the recall of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

Returns a function which computes a running average given current average, new observation, and current iteration.

Returns a function which computes a running sum given current sum, new observation, and current iteration.

Computes the sensitivity of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

Computes the specificity of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

Computes the top-k categorical accuracy.

Computes the number of true negative predictions with respect to given targets.

Computes the number of true positive predictions with respect to given targets.

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function

accuracy(y_true, y_pred)

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Computes the accuracy of the given predictions.

If the size of the last axis is 1, it performs a binary accuracy computation with a threshold of 0.5. Otherwise, computes categorical accuracy.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.accuracy(Nx.tensor([[1], [0], [0]]), Nx.tensor([[1], [1], [1]]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.3333333432674408
>

iex> Axon.Metrics.accuracy(Nx.tensor([[0, 1], [1, 0], [1, 0]]), Nx.tensor([[0, 1], [1, 0], [0, 1]]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.6666666865348816
>

iex> Axon.Metrics.accuracy(Nx.tensor([[0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0]]), Nx.tensor([[0, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0]]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.5
>
Link to this function

false_negatives(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the number of false negative predictions with respect to given targets.

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of predictions. Defaults to 0.5.

examples

Examples

iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.8, 0.2, 0.2])
iex> Axon.Metrics.false_negatives(y_true, y_pred)
#Nx.Tensor<
  u64
  3
>
Link to this function

false_positives(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the number of false positive predictions with respect to given targets.

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of predictions. Defaults to 0.5.

examples

Examples

iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.8, 0.2, 0.2])
iex> Axon.Metrics.false_positives(y_true, y_pred)
#Nx.Tensor<
  u64
  2
>
Link to this function

mean_absolute_error(y_true, y_pred)

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Calculates the mean absolute error of predictions with respect to targets.

$$l_i = \sum_i |\hat{y_i} - y_i|$$

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

examples

Examples

iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([[0.0, 1.0], [0.0, 0.0]], type: {:f, 32})
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([[1.0, 1.0], [1.0, 0.0]], type: {:f, 32})
iex> Axon.Metrics.mean_absolute_error(y_true, y_pred)
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.5
>
Link to this function

precision(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the precision of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of the predictions. Defaults to 0.5

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.precision(Nx.tensor([0, 1, 1, 1]), Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.6666666865348816
>
Link to this function

recall(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the recall of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of the predictions. Defaults to 0.5

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.recall(Nx.tensor([0, 1, 1, 1]), Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.6666666865348816
>

Returns a function which computes a running average given current average, new observation, and current iteration.

examples

Examples

iex> cur_avg = 0.5
iex> iteration = 1
iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([[0, 1], [1, 0], [1, 0]])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([[0, 1], [1, 0], [1, 0]])
iex> avg_acc = Axon.Metrics.running_average(&Axon.Metrics.accuracy/2)
iex> avg_acc.(cur_avg, [y_true, y_pred], iteration)
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.75
>

Returns a function which computes a running sum given current sum, new observation, and current iteration.

examples

Examples

iex> cur_sum = 12
iex> iteration = 2
iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([0, 1, 0, 1])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([1, 1, 0, 1])
iex> fps = Axon.Metrics.running_sum(&Axon.Metrics.false_positives/2)
iex> fps.(cur_sum, [y_true, y_pred], iteration)
#Nx.Tensor<
  s64
  13
>
Link to this function

sensitivity(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the sensitivity of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of the predictions. Defaults to 0.5

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.sensitivity(Nx.tensor([0, 1, 1, 1]), Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.6666666865348816
>
Link to this function

specificity(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the specificity of the given predictions with respect to the given targets.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of the predictions. Defaults to 0.5

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.specificity(Nx.tensor([0, 1, 1, 1]), Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1]))
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.0
>
Link to this function

top_k_categorical_accuracy(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the top-k categorical accuracy.

options

Options

  • k - The k in "top-k". Defaults to 5.
  • sparse - If y_true is a sparse tensor. Defaults to false.

argument-shapes

Argument Shapes

  • y_true - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$
  • y_pred - $(d_0, d_1, ..., d_n)$

examples

Examples

iex> Axon.Metrics.top_k_categorical_accuracy(Nx.tensor([0, 1, 0, 0, 0]), Nx.tensor([0.1, 0.4, 0.3, 0.7, 0.1]), k: 2)
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  1.0
>

iex> Axon.Metrics.top_k_categorical_accuracy(Nx.tensor([[0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0]]), Nx.tensor([[0.1, 0.4, 0.7], [0.1, 0.4, 0.7]]), k: 2)
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.5
>

iex> Axon.Metrics.top_k_categorical_accuracy(Nx.tensor([[0], [2]]), Nx.tensor([[0.1, 0.4, 0.7], [0.1, 0.4, 0.7]]), k: 2, sparse: true)
#Nx.Tensor<
  f32
  0.5
>
Link to this function

true_negatives(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the number of true negative predictions with respect to given targets.

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of predictions. Defaults to 0.5.

examples

Examples

iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.8, 0.2, 0.2])
iex> Axon.Metrics.true_negatives(y_true, y_pred)
#Nx.Tensor<
  u64
  1
>
Link to this function

true_positives(y_true, y_pred, opts \\ [])

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Computes the number of true positive predictions with respect to given targets.

options

Options

  • :threshold - threshold for truth value of predictions. Defaults to 0.5.

examples

Examples

iex> y_true = Nx.tensor([1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0])
iex> y_pred = Nx.tensor([0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.8, 0.2, 0.2])
iex> Axon.Metrics.true_positives(y_true, y_pred)
#Nx.Tensor<
  u64
  1
>