View Source Estructura (estructura v0.4.2)

Estructura is a set of extensions for Elixir structures, such as Access implementation, Enumerable and Collectable implementations, validations and test data generation via StreamData.

Estructura simplifies the following

use-options

Use Options

use Estructura accepts four keyword arguments.

  • access: true | false | :lazy whether to generate the Access implementation, default true; when true or :lazy, it also produces put/3 and get/3 methods to be used with coercion and validation, when :lazy, instances of Estructura.Lazy are understood as values

  • coercion: boolean() | [key()] whether to generate the bunch of coerce_×××/1 functions to be overwritten by implementations, default false

  • validation: boolean() | [key()] whether to generate the bunch of validate_×××/1 functions to be overwritten by implementations, default false

  • enumerable: boolean() whether to generate the Enumerable porotocol implementation, default false
  • collectable: false | key() whether to generate the Collectable protocol implementation, default false; if non-falsey atom is given, it must point to a struct field where Collectable would collect. Should be one of list(), map(), MapSet.t(), bitstribg()

  • generator: %{optional(key()) => Estructura.Config.generator()} the instructions for the __generate__/{0,1} functions that would produce the target structure values suitable for usage in StreamData property testing; the generated __generator__/1 function is overwritable.

Please note, that setting coercion and/or validation to truthy values has effect if and only if access has been also set to true.

Typical example of usage would be:

defmodule MyStruct do
  use Estructura,
    access: true,
    coercion: [:foo], # requires `c:MyStruct.Coercible.coerce_foo/1` impl
    validation: true, # requires `c:MyStruct.Validatable.validate_×××/1` impls
    enumerable: true,
    collectable: :bar,
    generator: [
      foo: {StreamData, :integer},
      bar: {StreamData, :list_of, [{StreamData, :string, [:alphanumeric]}]},
      baz: {StreamData, :fixed_map,
        [[key1: {StreamData, :integer}, key2: {StreamData, :integer}]]}
    ]

  defstruct foo: 42, bar: [], baz: %{}

  @impl MyStruct.Coercible
  def coerce_foo(value) when is_integer(value), do: {:ok, value}
  def coerce_foo(value) when is_float(value), do: {:ok, round(value)}
  def coerce_foo(value) when is_binary(value) do
    case Integer.parse(value) do
      {value, ""} -> {:ok, value}
      _ -> {:error, "#{value} is not a valid integer value"}
    end
  end
  def coerce_foo(value),
    do: {:error, "Cannot coerce value given for `foo` field (#{inspect(value)})"}

  @impl MyStruct.Validatable
  def validate_foo(value) when value >= 0, do: {:ok, value}
  def validate_foo(_), do: {:error, ":foo must be positive"}

  @impl MyStruct.Validatable
  def validate_bar(value), do: {:ok, value}

  @impl MyStruct.Validatable
  def validate_baz(value), do: {:ok, value}
end

The above would allow the following to be done with the structure:

s = %MyStruct{}

put_in s, [:foo], :forty_two
#⇒ %MyStruct{foo: :forty_two, bar: [], baz: %{}}

for i <- [1, 2, 3], into: s, do: i
#⇒ %MyStruct{foo: 42, bar: [1, 2, 3], baz: %{}}

Enum.map(s, &elem(&1, 1))
#⇒ [42, [], %{}]

MyStruct.__generator__() |> Enum.take(3)
#⇒ [
#      %MyStruct{bar: [], baz: %{key1: 0, key2: 0}, foo: -1},
#      %MyStruct{bar: ["g", "xO"], baz: %{key1: -1, key2: -2}, foo: 2},
#      %MyStruct{bar: ["", "", ""], baz: %{key1: -3, key2: 1}, foo: -1}
#    ]

coercion

Coercion

When coercion: true | [key()] is passed as an argument to use Estructura, the nested behaviour Coercible is generated and the target module claims to implement it.

To make a coercion work with MyStruct.put/3 and put_in/3 provided by Access implementation, the consumer module should implement MyStruct.Coercible behaviour.

For the consumer convenience, the warnings for not implemented functions will be issued by compiler.

validation

Validation

When validation: true | [key()] is passed as an argument to use Estructura, the nested behaviour Validatable is generated and the target module claims to implement it.

To make a validation work with MyStruct.put/3 and put_in/3 provided by Access implementation, the consumer module should implement MyStruct.Validatable behaviour.

For the consumer convenience, the warnings for not implemented functions will be issued by compiler.

generation

Generation

If generator keyword argument has been passed, MyStruct.__generate__/{0,1} can be used to generate instances of this struct for StreamData property based tests.

property "generation" do
  check all %MyStruct{foo: foo, bar: bar, baz: baz} <- MyStruct.__generator__() do
    assert match?(%{key1: v1, key2: v2} when is_integer(v1) and is_integer(v2), baz)
    assert is_integer(foo)
    assert is_binary(bar)
  end
end

lazy

Lazy

If access: :lazy is passed as an option, the struct content might be instantiated lazily, upon first access through Kernel.×××_in/{2,3} family.

This might be explicitly helpful when the real content requires a significant time to load and/or store. Consider the full response from the web server, including the gzipped content, which might in turn be a huge text file. Or an attachment to an email.

Instead of unarchiving the content, one might use Lazy as

defmodule Response do
  @moduledoc false
  use Estructura, access: :lazy

  def extract(file), do: {:ok, ZipHelper.unzip(file)}

 defstruct __lazy_data__: nil,
   file: Estructura.Lazy.new(&Response.extract/1)
end

response = %Response{__lazy_data__: zipped_content}
# immediate response

response |> get_in([:file])
# unzip and return

{unzipped, struct_with_cached_value} = response |> pop_in([:file])
# unzip and return the value, alter the struct with it

See Estructura.Lazy for details and options, see Estructura.LazyMap for the implementation of lazy map.