View Source Using with Relay

While GraphQL specifies what queries, mutations, and object types should look like, Relay is a client-side implementation of an efficient data storage and (re-)fetching system that is designed to work with a GraphQL server.

To allow Relay to work its magic on the client side, all GraphQL queries and mutations need to follow certain conventions. Absinthe.Relay provides utilities to help you make your server-side schemas Relay-compatible while requiring only minimal changes to your existing code.

Absinthe.Relay supports three fundamental pieces of the Relay puzzle: nodes, which are normal GraphQL objects with a unique global ID scheme; mutations, which in Relay Classic conform to a certain input and output structure; and connections, which provide enhanced functionality around many-to-one lists (most notably pagination).

Using Absinthe.Relay

Make sure you have the absinthe_relay package configured as a dependency for your application.

To add Relay support schemas should start with use Absinthe.Relay.Schema, eg:

defmodule Schema do
  use Absinthe.Schema
  use Absinthe.Relay.Schema, :classic

  # ...


Note that this schema is being prepared to support Relay Classic; if you do not provide either a :classic or :modern option, :classic is currently selected as the default, but a warning is output; :modern will be the default option in v1.5.

If you're defining your types in a separate type module that you're using via import_types in your schema, use the Notation module instead:

defmodule Schema.Types do
  use Absinthe.Schema.Notation
  use Absinthe.Relay.Schema.Notation, :classic

  # ...


Now you're ready to implement the Relay features you need.


To enable Relay to be clever about caching and (re-)fetching data objects, your server must assign a globally unique ID to each object before sending it down the wire. Absinthe will take care of this for you if you provide some additional information in your schema.

First of all, you must define a :node interface in your schema. Rather than do this manually, Absinthe.Relay provides a macro so most of the configuration is handled for you.

Use node interface in your schema:

node interface do
  resolve_type fn
    %YourApp.Model.Person{}, _ ->
    %YourApp.Model.Business{}, _ ->
    _, _ ->

# ... mutations, queries ...

For instance, if your query or mutation resolver returns:

{:ok, %YourApp.Model.Business{id: 19, business_name: "ACME Corp.", employee_count: 52}}

Absinthe will pattern-match the value to determine that the object type is :business. This becomes important when you configure your :business type as a node:

node object :business do  # <-- notice the macro prefix "node"
  field :business_name, non_null(:string)
  field :employee_count, :integer

(Note the macro name, node, looks like a prefix to the object macro.)

While it may appear that your :business object type only has two fields, :business_name and :employee_count, it actually has three. An :id field is configured for you because you used the node object macro, and because the :node interface knows how to identify the values returned from your resolvers, that :id field is automatically set-up to convert internal (in this case, numeric) IDs to the global ID scheme -- an opaque string (like "UWxf59AcjK=") will be returned instead.

Important: the global ID is generated based on the object's unique identifier, which by default is the value of its existing :id field. This is convenient, because if you are using Ecto, the primary key :id database field is typically enough to uniquely identify an object of a given type. It also means, however, that the internal :id of a node object will not be available to be queried as :id.

  • If you wish to generate your global IDs based on something other than the existing :id field (if, for instance, your internal IDs are returned as _id), provide the :id_fetcher option (see the documentation).
  • If you wish to make your internal ID queryable, you must return it as a different field (eg, you could define an :internal_id field whose resolver extracts the raw, internal :id value from the source map/struct).

Node query field

Ok, so your node objects provide a global :id. How does Relay use it?

Relay expects you to provide a query field called node that accepts a global ID (as arg :id) and returns the corresponding node object. Absinthe makes it easy to set this up -- use the node field macro inside your query.

query do
  # ...
  node field do
    resolve fn
      %{type: :person, id: id}, _ ->
        # Get the person from the DB somehow, returning a tuple
        YourApp.Resolver.Person.find(%{id: id}, %{})
      %{type: :business, id: id}, _ ->
        # Get the business from @businesses
        {:ok, Map.get(@businesses, id)}
      # etc.
  # ... more queries ...

Notice that the resolver for node field expects the first (args) argument to contain a :type and :id. These are the node object type identifier and the internal (non-global) ID, automatically parsed from the global ID. The resolver looks up the correct value using the internal ID and returns a tuple, as usual.

For more information, see the documentation.

Converting node IDs to internal IDs for resolvers

If you need to parse a node (global) ID for use in a resolver, there is a helpful utility, parsing_node_ids/2 that is automatically imported for you. Here's an example of how it works.

Let's assume we have a field, :employees, that returns a list of :person objects for a given :business_id -- a node ID:

query do
  field :employees, list_of(:people) do
    arg :business_id, :id
    resolve &resolve_employees/2

def resolve_employees(%{business_id: global_id}, _) do
  # But I need an internal ID to look-up the employees!

In resolve_employees/2, we could certainly parse out the internal ID manually. Here's how that would look:

def resolve_employees(%{business_id: global_id}, _) do
  {:ok, %{type: :business, id: internal_id}} =
    Absinthe.Relay.Node.from_global_id(global_id, YourApp.Schema)
  # TODO: find employees using internal_id, return tuple

Obviously this can get a bit tedious if we have to do it often. Instead, we can use parsing_node_ids/2 to wrap our resolver function to do the parsing for us, invoking our function with the internal ID instead. We just have to tell the parsing_node_ids/2 what ID field arguments to parse and what the associated types should be:

query do
  field :employees, list_of(:people) do
    arg :business_id, :id
    resolve parsing_node_ids(&resolve_employees/2, business_id: :business)

def resolve_employees(%{business_id: internal_id}, _) do
  # We have an internal ID!

This leaves our resolver function virtually unchanged, and keeps our code much cleaner.


Relay Classic sets some specific constraints around the way arguments and results for mutations are structured.

In Relay Modern (if you're using the :modern option when defining the schema), you'll have access to a similar set of macros as discussed here, but be aware that the constraints mentioned (on input, on clientMutationId, etc) don't apply. See the documentation for Absinthe.Relay.Mutation.Notation.Modern for more specific instructions.

Relay expects mutations to accept exactly one argument, input, an InputObject. On the JavaScript side, it automatically populates a field on the input, clientMutationId, and expects to get it back, unchanged, as part of the result. Thankfully Absinthe.Relay abstracts these details away from the schema designer, allowing them to focus on any other arguments needed or results expected.

Important: Remember that input fields (and arguments in general) cannot be of one of your object types. Use input_object to model complex argument types.

In this example, we accept a list of multiple :person_input_object values to insert people into a database.

defmodule YourApp.Schema do
  # ...

  input_object :person_input_object do
    field :first_name, non_null(:string)
    field :last_name, non_null(:string)
    field :age, :integer

  mutation do

    @desc "A mutation that inserts a list of persons into the database"
    payload field :bulk_create_persons do
      input do
        field :persons, list_of(:person_input_object)
      output do
        # fields in the result
      resolve &Resolver.Person.bulk_create/2

    # ... more mutations ...

Note the payload macro introduces a Relay mutation, input defines the fields (inside the input argument), and output defines the fields available as part of the result.

See the module documentation for more information:

Referencing existing nodes in mutation inputs

Occasionally, your client may wish to make reference to an existing node in the mutation input (this happens particularly when manipulating the connection edges of a parent node).

Incoming IDs for node types may have to be converted to their internal equivalents so you can persist changes to your backend. For this purpose, you can use Absinthe.Relay.Node.from_global_id/2 to parse node (global) IDs manually.

def bulk_create(%{persons: new_persons, group: global_group_id}, _) do
  {:ok, %{type: :group, id: internal_group_id}} = Absinthe.Relay.Node.from_global_id(global_group_id, YourApp.Schema)
  # ... manipulate your DB using internal_group_id

If, of course, your client knows the internal IDs (in a peer field to :id, eg, :internal_id), you can depends on that ID -- but we recommend that you use node IDs as they are opaque values and it's the more conventional practice.

Important: When using from_global_id, remember to always match the :type value to ensure the internal ID is for the type you expect, and a global ID for the wrong type of node hasn't been mistakenly sent to the server.


One of the more popular features of Relay is the rich pagination support provided by its connections. This medium post has a good explanation of the full feature set and nomenclature.

For example, you could define a connection for paginating :location objects with:

connection node_type: :location

This will automatically define two new types: :location_connection and :location_edge.

We define a field that uses these types to paginate associated records by using connection field. Here, for instance, we support paginating a business’s locations:

object :business do
  field :short_name, :string
  connection field :locations, node_type: :location do
    resolve fn
      pagination_args, %{source: business} ->
        |> where(business_id: ^
        |> order_by(:inserted_at)
        |> Connection.from_query(&Repo.all/1, pagination_args)

We are piping a query for the associated locations into from_query/3 along with the default relay pagination arguments that allow for pagination. For example, to get just the first 10 locations, use the first argument:

query {
  business(id:"9ea6605e-e6c8-44ea-98d0-1fe6276e193d") {
    locations(first:10) {
        node {

Check the documentation for more details on connections.

Note: These features do not require using Relay on the client as Apollo and other client implementations generally support Relay connection configuration.