Elixir v1.8.2 Inspect.Algebra View Source

A set of functions for creating and manipulating algebra documents.

This module implements the functionality described in "Strictly Pretty" (2000) by Christian Lindig with small additions, like support for binary nodes and a break mode that maximises use of horizontal space.

iex> Inspect.Algebra.empty()
:doc_nil

iex> "foo"
"foo"

With the functions in this module, we can concatenate different elements together and render them:

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.concat(Inspect.Algebra.empty(), "foo")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["foo"]

The functions nest/2, space/2 and line/2 help you put the document together into a rigid structure. However, the document algebra gets interesting when using functions like glue/3 and group/1. A glue inserts a break between two documents. A group indicates a document that must fit the current line, otherwise breaks are rendered as new lines. Let's glue two docs together with a break, group it and then render it:

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue("a", " ", "b")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["a", " ", "b"]

Notice the break was represented as is, because we haven't reached a line limit. Once we do, it is replaced by a newline:

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue(String.duplicate("a", 20), " ", "b")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 10)
["aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa", "\n", "b"]

This module uses the byte size to compute how much space there is left. If your document contains strings, then those need to be wrapped in string/1, which then relies on String.length/1 to precompute the document size.

Finally, this module also contains Elixir related functions, a bit tied to Elixir formatting, such as to_doc/2.

Implementation details

The implementation of Inspect.Algebra is based on the Strictly Pretty paper by Lindig which builds on top of previous pretty printing algorithms but is tailored to strict languages, such as Elixir. The core idea in the paper is the use of explicit document groups which are rendered as flat (breaks as spaces) or as break (breaks as newlines).

This implementation provides two types of breaks: :strict and :flex. When a group does not fit, all strict breaks are treated as newlines. Flex breaks however are re-evaluated on every occurrence and may still be rendered flat. See break/1 and flex_break/1 for more information.

This implementation also adds force_unfit/1 and next_break_fits/2 which give more control over the document fitting.

Link to this section Summary

Functions

Returns a break document based on the given string.

Collapse any new lines and whitespace following this node, emitting up to max new lines.

Colors a document if the color_key has a color in the options.

Concatenates a list of documents returning a new document.

Concatenates two document entities returning a new document.

Wraps collection in left and right according to limit and contents.

Returns a document entity used to represent nothingness.

Returns a flex break document based on the given string.

Glues two documents (doc1 and doc2) inserting a flex_break/1 given by break_string between them.

Folds a list of documents into a document using the given folder function.

Forces the current group to be unfit.

Formats a given document for a given width.

Glues two documents (doc1 and doc2) inserting the given break break_string between them.

Returns a group containing the specified document doc.

A mandatory linebreak.

Inserts a mandatory linebreak between two documents.

Nests the given document at the given level.

Considers the next break as fit.

Inserts a mandatory single space between two documents.

Creates a document represented by string.

Converts an Elixir term to an algebra document according to the Inspect protocol.

Link to this section Types

Link to this type

t() View Source
t() ::
  binary()
  | :doc_nil
  | :doc_line
  | doc_string()
  | doc_cons()
  | doc_nest()
  | doc_break()
  | doc_group()
  | doc_color()
  | doc_force()
  | doc_fits()
  | doc_collapse()

Link to this section Guards

Link to this section Functions

Link to this function

break(string \\ " ") View Source
break(binary()) :: doc_break()

Returns a break document based on the given string.

This break can be rendered as a linebreak or as the given string, depending on the mode of the chosen layout.

Examples

Let's create a document by concatenating two strings with a break between them:

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.concat(["a", Inspect.Algebra.break("\t"), "b"])
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["a", "\t", "b"]

Notice the break was represented with the given string, because we didn't reach a line limit. Once we do, it is replaced by a newline:

iex> break = Inspect.Algebra.break("\t")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.concat([String.duplicate("a", 20), break, "b"])
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 10)
["aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa", "\n", "b"]
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collapse_lines(max) View Source (since 1.6.0)
collapse_lines(pos_integer()) :: doc_collapse()

Collapse any new lines and whitespace following this node, emitting up to max new lines.

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color(doc, color_key, opts) View Source (since 1.4.0)
color(t(), Inspect.Opts.color_key(), Inspect.Opts.t()) :: doc_color()

Colors a document if the color_key has a color in the options.

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concat(docs) View Source
concat([t()]) :: t()

Concatenates a list of documents returning a new document.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.concat(["a", "b", "c"])
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["a", "b", "c"]
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concat(doc1, doc2) View Source
concat(t(), t()) :: t()

Concatenates two document entities returning a new document.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.concat("hello", "world")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["hello", "world"]
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container_doc(left, collection, right, inspect_opts, fun, opts \\ []) View Source (since 1.6.0)
container_doc(
  t(),
  [any()],
  t(),
  Inspect.Opts.t(),
  (term(), Inspect.Opts.t() -> t()),
  keyword()
) :: t()

Wraps collection in left and right according to limit and contents.

It uses the given left and right documents as surrounding and the separator document separator to separate items in docs. If all entries in the collection are simple documents (texts or strings), then this function attempts to put as much as possible on the same line. If they are not simple, only one entry is shown per line if they do not fit.

The limit in the given inspect_opts is respected and when reached this function stops processing and outputs "..." instead.

Options

  • :separator - the separator used between each doc
  • :break - If :strict, always break between each element. If :flex, breaks only when necessary. If :maybe, chooses :flex only if all elements are text-based, otherwise is :strict

Examples

iex> inspect_opts = %Inspect.Opts{limit: :infinity}
iex> fun = fn i, _opts -> to_string(i) end
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.container_doc("[", Enum.to_list(1..5), "]", inspect_opts, fun)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 5) |> IO.iodata_to_binary()
"[1,\n 2,\n 3,\n 4,\n 5]"

iex> inspect_opts = %Inspect.Opts{limit: 3}
iex> fun = fn i, _opts -> to_string(i) end
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.container_doc("[", Enum.to_list(1..5), "]", inspect_opts, fun)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 20) |> IO.iodata_to_binary()
"[1, 2, 3, ...]"

iex> inspect_opts = %Inspect.Opts{limit: 3}
iex> fun = fn i, _opts -> to_string(i) end
iex> opts = [separator: "!"]
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.container_doc("[", Enum.to_list(1..5), "]", inspect_opts, fun, opts)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 20) |> IO.iodata_to_binary()
"[1! 2! 3! ...]"
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empty() View Source
empty() :: :doc_nil

Returns a document entity used to represent nothingness.

Examples

iex> Inspect.Algebra.empty()
:doc_nil
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flex_break(string \\ " ") View Source (since 1.6.0)
flex_break(binary()) :: doc_break()

Returns a flex break document based on the given string.

A flex break still causes a group to break, like break/1, but it is re-evaluated when the documented is rendered.

For example, take a group document represented as [1, 2, 3] where the space after every comma is a break. When the document above does not fit a single line, all breaks are enabled, causing the document to be rendered as:

[1,
 2,
 3]

However, if flex breaks are used, then each break is re-evaluated when rendered, so the document could be possible rendered as:

[1, 2,
 3]

Hence the name "flex". they are more flexible when it comes to the document fitting. On the other hand, they are more expensive since each break needs to be re-evaluated.

This function is used by container_doc/4 and friends to the maximum number of entries on the same line.

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flex_glue(doc1, break_string \\ " ", doc2) View Source (since 1.6.0)
flex_glue(t(), binary(), t()) :: t()

Glues two documents (doc1 and doc2) inserting a flex_break/1 given by break_string between them.

This function is used by container_doc/6 and friends to the maximum number of entries on the same line.

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fold_doc(docs, folder_fun) View Source
fold_doc([t()], (t(), t() -> t())) :: t()

Folds a list of documents into a document using the given folder function.

The list of documents is folded "from the right"; in that, this function is similar to List.foldr/3, except that it doesn't expect an initial accumulator and uses the last element of docs as the initial accumulator.

Examples

iex> docs = ["A", "B", "C"]
iex> docs =
...>   Inspect.Algebra.fold_doc(docs, fn doc, acc ->
...>     Inspect.Algebra.concat([doc, "!", acc])
...>   end)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(docs, 80)
["A", "!", "B", "!", "C"]
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force_unfit(doc) View Source (since 1.6.0)
force_unfit(t()) :: doc_force()

Forces the current group to be unfit.

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format(doc, width) View Source
format(t(), non_neg_integer() | :infinity) :: iodata()

Formats a given document for a given width.

Takes the maximum width and a document to print as its arguments and returns an IO data representation of the best layout for the document to fit in the given width.

The document starts flat (without breaks) until a group is found.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue("hello", " ", "world")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> doc |> Inspect.Algebra.format(30) |> IO.iodata_to_binary()
"hello world"
iex> doc |> Inspect.Algebra.format(10) |> IO.iodata_to_binary()
"hello\nworld"
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glue(doc1, break_string \\ " ", doc2) View Source
glue(t(), binary(), t()) :: t()

Glues two documents (doc1 and doc2) inserting the given break break_string between them.

For more information on how the break is inserted, see break/1.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue("hello", "world")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["hello", " ", "world"]

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue("hello", "\t", "world")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["hello", "\t", "world"]
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group(doc, mode \\ :self) View Source
group(t(), :self | :inherit) :: doc_group()

Returns a group containing the specified document doc.

Documents in a group are attempted to be rendered together to the best of the renderer ability.

The group mode can also be set to :inherit, which means it automatically breaks if the parent group has broken too.

Examples

iex> doc =
...>   Inspect.Algebra.group(
...>     Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>       Inspect.Algebra.group(
...>         Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>           "Hello,",
...>           Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>             Inspect.Algebra.break(),
...>             "A"
...>           )
...>         )
...>       ),
...>       Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>         Inspect.Algebra.break(),
...>         "B"
...>       )
...>     )
...>   )
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["Hello,", " ", "A", " ", "B"]
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 6)
["Hello,", "\n", "A", "\n", "B"]
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line() View Source (since 1.6.0)
line() :: t()

A mandatory linebreak.

A group with linebreaks will fit if all lines in the group fit.

Examples

iex> doc =
...>   Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>     Inspect.Algebra.concat(
...>       "Hughes",
...>       Inspect.Algebra.line()
...>     ),
...>     "Wadler"
...>   )
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["Hughes", "\n", "Wadler"]
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line(doc1, doc2) View Source
line(t(), t()) :: t()

Inserts a mandatory linebreak between two documents.

See line/1.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.line("Hughes", "Wadler")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 80)
["Hughes", "\n", "Wadler"]
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nest(doc, level, mode \\ :always) View Source
nest(t(), non_neg_integer() | :cursor | :reset, :always | :break) ::
  doc_nest()

Nests the given document at the given level.

If level is an integer, that's the indentation appended to line breaks whenever they occur. If the level is :cursor, the current position of the "cursor" in the document becomes the nesting. If the level is :reset, it is set back to 0.

mode can be :always, which means nesting always happen, or :break, which means nesting only happens inside a group that has been broken.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.nest(Inspect.Algebra.glue("hello", "world"), 5)
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 5)
["hello", "\n     ", "world"]
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next_break_fits(doc, mode \\ :enabled) View Source (since 1.6.0)
next_break_fits(t(), :enabled | :disabled) :: doc_fits()

Considers the next break as fit.

mode can be :enabled or :disabled. When :enabled, it will consider the document as fit as soon as it finds the next break, effectively cancelling the break. It will also ignore any force_unfit/1 in search of the next break.

When disabled, it behaves as usual and it will ignore any further next_break_fits/2 instruction.

Examples

This is used by Elixir's code formatter to avoid breaking code at some specific locations. For example, consider this code:

some_function_call(%{..., key: value, ...})

Now imagine that this code does not fit its line. The code formatter introduces breaks inside ( and ) and inside %{ and }. Therefore the document would break as:

some_function_call(
  %{
    ...,
    key: value,
    ...
  }
)

The formatter wraps the algebra document representing the map in next_break_fits/1 so the code is formatted as:

some_function_call(%{
  ...,
  key: value,
  ...
})
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space(doc1, doc2) View Source
space(t(), t()) :: t()

Inserts a mandatory single space between two documents.

Examples

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.space("Hughes", "Wadler")
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 5)
["Hughes", " ", "Wadler"]
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string(string) View Source (since 1.6.0)
string(String.t()) :: doc_string()

Creates a document represented by string.

While Inspect.Algebra accepts binaries as documents, those are counted by binary size. On the other hand, string documents are measured in terms of graphemes towards the document size.

Examples

The following document has 10 bytes and therefore it does not format to width 9 without breaks:

iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue("olá", " ", "mundo")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 9)
["olá", "\n", "mundo"]

However, if we use string, then the string length is used, instead of byte size, correctly fitting:

iex> string = Inspect.Algebra.string("olá")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.glue(string, " ", "mundo")
iex> doc = Inspect.Algebra.group(doc)
iex> Inspect.Algebra.format(doc, 9)
["olá", " ", "mundo"]
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to_doc(term, opts) View Source
to_doc(any(), Inspect.Opts.t()) :: t()

Converts an Elixir term to an algebra document according to the Inspect protocol.