Elixir v1.4.4 URI

Utilities for working with URIs.

This module provides functions for working with URIs (for example, parsing URIs or encoding query strings). For reference, most of the functions in this module refer to RFC 3986.

Summary

Functions

Checks if the character is a “reserved” character in a URI

Checks if the character is allowed unescaped in a URI

Checks if the character is a “unreserved” character in a URI

Percent-unescapes a URI

Decodes a query string into a map

Decodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”

Returns the default port for a given scheme

Registers the default port port for the given scheme

Percent-escapes the given string

Encodes an enumerable into a query string

Encodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”

Merges two URIs

Parses a well-formed URI reference into its components

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct

Types

t()
t() :: %URI{authority: nil | binary, fragment: nil | binary, host: nil | binary, path: nil | binary, port: nil | :inet.port_number, query: nil | binary, scheme: nil | binary, userinfo: nil | binary}

Functions

char_reserved?(char)
char_reserved?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is a “reserved” character in a URI.

Reserved characters are specified in RFC 3986, section 2.2.

Examples

iex> URI.char_reserved?(?+)
true
char_unescaped?(char)
char_unescaped?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is allowed unescaped in a URI.

This is the default used by URI.encode/2 where both reserved and unreserved characters are kept unescaped.

Examples

iex> URI.char_unescaped?(?{)
false
char_unreserved?(char)
char_unreserved?(char) :: boolean

Checks if the character is a “unreserved” character in a URI.

Unreserved characters are specified in RFC 3986, section 2.3.

Examples

iex> URI.char_unreserved?(?_)
true
decode(uri)
decode(binary) :: binary

Percent-unescapes a URI.

Examples

iex> URI.decode("http%3A%2F%2Felixir-lang.org")
"http://elixir-lang.org"
decode_query(query, map \\ %{})
decode_query(binary, map) :: map

Decodes a query string into a map.

Given a query string of the form of key1=value1&key2=value2..., this function inserts each key-value pair in the query string as one entry in the given map. Keys and values in the resulting map will be binaries. Keys and values will be percent-unescaped.

Use query_decoder/1 if you want to iterate over each value manually.

Examples

iex> URI.decode_query("foo=1&bar=2")
%{"bar" => "2", "foo" => "1"}

iex> URI.decode_query("percent=oh+yes%21", %{"starting" => "map"})
%{"percent" => "oh yes!", "starting" => "map"}
decode_www_form(string)
decode_www_form(binary) :: binary

Decodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”.

Examples

iex> URI.decode_www_form("%3Call+in%2F")
"<all in/"
default_port(scheme)
default_port(binary) :: nil | non_neg_integer

Returns the default port for a given scheme.

If the scheme is unknown to the URI module, this function returns nil. The default port for any scheme can be configured globally via default_port/2.

Examples

iex> URI.default_port("ftp")
21

iex> URI.default_port("ponzi")
nil
default_port(scheme, port)
default_port(binary, non_neg_integer) :: :ok

Registers the default port port for the given scheme.

After this function is called, port will be returned by default_port/1 for the given scheme scheme. Note that this function changes the default port for the given scheme globally, meaning for every application.

It is recommended for this function to be invoked in your application’s start callback in case you want to register new URIs.

encode(string, predicate \\ &char_unescaped?/1)
encode(binary, (byte -> boolean)) :: binary

Percent-escapes the given string.

This function accepts a predicate function as an optional argument; if passed, this function will be called with each character (byte) in string as its argument and should return true if that character should not be escaped and left as is.

Examples

iex> URI.encode("ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put it+й")
"ftp://s-ite.tld/?value=put%20it+%D0%B9"

iex> URI.encode("a string", &(&1 != ?i))
"a str%69ng"
encode_query(enumerable)
encode_query(term) :: binary

Encodes an enumerable into a query string.

Takes an enumerable that enumerates as a list of two-element tuples (e.g., a map or a keyword list) and returns a string in the form of key1=value1&key2=value2... where keys and values are URL encoded as per encode_www_form/1.

Keys and values can be any term that implements the String.Chars protocol, except lists which are explicitly forbidden.

Examples

iex> hd = %{"foo" => 1, "bar" => 2}
iex> URI.encode_query(hd)
"bar=2&foo=1"

iex> query = %{"key" => "value with spaces"}
iex> URI.encode_query(query)
"key=value+with+spaces"

iex> URI.encode_query %{key: [:a, :list]}
** (ArgumentError) encode_query/1 values cannot be lists, got: [:a, :list]
encode_www_form(string)
encode_www_form(binary) :: binary

Encodes a string as “x-www-form-urlencoded”.

Example

iex> URI.encode_www_form("put: it+й")
"put%3A+it%2B%D0%B9"
merge(uri, rel)
merge(t | binary, t | binary) :: t

Merges two URIs.

This function merges two URIs as per RFC 3986, section 5.2.

Examples

iex> URI.merge(URI.parse("http://google.com"), "/query") |> to_string
"http://google.com/query"

iex> URI.merge("http://example.com", "http://google.com") |> to_string
"http://google.com"
parse(uri)
parse(t | binary) :: t

Parses a well-formed URI reference into its components.

Note this function expects a well-formed URI and does not perform any validation. See the “Examples” section below for examples of how URI.parse/1 can be used to parse a wide range of URIs.

This function uses the parsing regular expression as defined in RFC 3986, Appendix B.

When a URI is given without a port, the value returned by URI.default_port/1 for the URI’s scheme is used for the :port field.

If a %URI{} struct is given to this function, this function returns it unmodified.

Examples

iex> URI.parse("http://elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{scheme: "http", path: "/", query: nil, fragment: nil,
     authority: "elixir-lang.org", userinfo: nil,
     host: "elixir-lang.org", port: 80}

iex> URI.parse("//elixir-lang.org/")
%URI{authority: "elixir-lang.org", fragment: nil, host: "elixir-lang.org",
     path: "/", port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}

iex> URI.parse("/foo/bar")
%URI{authority: nil, fragment: nil, host: nil, path: "/foo/bar",
     port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}

iex> URI.parse("foo/bar")
%URI{authority: nil, fragment: nil, host: nil, path: "foo/bar",
     port: nil, query: nil, scheme: nil, userinfo: nil}
path_to_segments(path)
query_decoder(query)
query_decoder(binary) :: Enumerable.t

Returns a stream of two-element tuples representing key-value pairs in the given query.

Key and value in each tuple will be binaries and will be percent-unescaped.

Examples

iex> URI.query_decoder("foo=1&bar=2") |> Enum.to_list()
[{"foo", "1"}, {"bar", "2"}]
to_string(uri)
to_string(t) :: binary

Returns the string representation of the given URI struct.

iex> URI.to_string(URI.parse("http://google.com"))
"http://google.com"

iex> URI.to_string(%URI{scheme: "foo", host: "bar.baz"})
"foo://bar.baz"