View Source Experimental features

The features described in this document are experimental. They are under consideration and or actively being developed.

Firmware patches

Firmware update files (.fw) contain everything your target needs to boot and run your application. Commonly, this single file package will contain your root filesystem, the Linux kernel, a bootloader, and some extra files and metadata specific to your target. Packaging all these files together provides a convenient and reliable means of distributing firmware that can be used to boot new devices as well as upgrade existing ones. Unfortunately, this mechanism is not conducive to applying updates to devices that use expensive metered network connections where the cost of every byte counts. This problem can be alleviated with firmware patches.

A firmware patch file's content structure is identical to that of a regular firmware update file, it contains your root file system, the Linux kernel, and so on. The main difference is that the contents of these files are no longer a bit for bit representation but instead the delta between two known versions of firmware. Currently, the system will only apply patches to the root file system, but there are plans to support other files. It is important to note that in order to generate a firmware patch file, you will need to supply two full firmware update files, the firmware that the target is updating from (currently running) and the firmware the device will be updating to (the desired new firmware). Attempting to apply a firmware patch to a target that is not running the "from" firmware will result in returning an error when attempting to apply it. Generating and applying firmware patch files will require that your host machine and your target have fwup >= 1.6.0 installed.

Preparing your Nerves system

Firmware update patches will require modifications to the fwup.conf of your Nerves system. These updates must be applied in full to a running target before it is capable of applying firmware update patches.

In your fwup.conf, find the references to rootfs.img, in typical systems there will be 4 references.

  • file-resource: Unchanged
  • Inside the complete task: Unchanged. When writing a complete firmware on to a new device. A patch cannot be applied on the target.
  • Inside the upgrade.a task: When new firmware is written in to firmware slot a.
  • Inside the upgrade.b task: When new firmware is written in to firmware slot b.

We only need to modify the actions taken in the upgrade.a and upgrade.b steps.

Change the reference in the upgrade.a task:

on-resource rootfs.img { raw_write(${ROOTFS_A_PART_OFFSET}) }


on-resource rootfs.img {

Change the reference in the upgrade.b task:

on-resource rootfs.img { raw_write(${ROOTFS_B_PART_OFFSET}) }


on-resource rootfs.img {

You'll also need to ensure that your system is being build using nerves_system_br >= 1.11.2. This will be in your mix dependencies. If you attempt to apply a firmware patch to a device that does not support it, you will receive an error similar to the following:

Running fwup...
fwup: Upgrading partition B
fwup: File 'rootfs.img' isn't expected size (7373 vs 49201152) and xdelta3 patch support not enabled on it. (Add delta-source-raw-offset or delta-source-raw-count at least)

Preparing your project

Generating a root filesystem patch requires a bit comparison between two root file systems. We use xdelta3 and provide it the "from" and "to" SquashFS files. SquashFS will compress the root filesystem structure and data by default. The resulting patch file size is often quite higher compared to the expected source modification size due to the bit for bit comparison being inefficient when comparing compressed data. SquashFS can be configured to disable compression, allowing us to create more efficient patches. Disabling SquashFS compression allows us to create more effective patches. Add the following mksquashfs_flags to your project's mix config.

# Customize non-Elixir parts of the firmware. See
# for details.

config :nerves, :firmware,
  rootfs_overlay: "rootfs_overlay",
  mksquashfs_flags: ["-noI", "-noId", "-noD", "-noF", "-noX"]

Patch sizes can also be optimized by configuring the build system's source_date_epoch date. This will help with reproducible builds by preventing timestamps modifications from affecting the output bit representation.

# Set the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH date for reproducible builds.
# See for more information

config :nerves, source_date_epoch: "1596027629"

Testing firmware patches locally

Create a new project using mix <project name> and apply the steps listed in the Preparing your project section. Then, choose a target, in this example, I will be using a Raspberry Pi Zero W rpi0 and building an app called test_patch.

export MIX_TARGET=rpi0
mix deps.get

Create your initial firmware and burn it to an SD card

mix firmware.burn

Connect the SD card and power on the device by connecting a micro USB cable to the host USB port on the Raspberry Pi. You can ssh into the device at nerves.local and you should get an IEX prompt.

ssh nerves.local

Interactive Elixir (1.10.4) - press Ctrl+C to exit (type h() ENTER for help)
Toolshed imported. Run h(Toolshed) for more info.
RingLogger is collecting log messages from Elixir and Linux. To see the
messages, either attach the current IEx session to the logger:


or print the next messages in the log:

iex(1)> TestPatch.hello

Make some changes to the function. Open lib/<app_name>.ex and modify the hello/0 function.

def hello do

Now lets generate a patch firmware.

mix firmware.patch

You should see output similar to the following:

Finished generating patch firmware

uuid: 6cf7f75f-eb93-5a91-e28c-fd414602b6e7"

size: 22079567 bytes

uuid: 69752f24-291f-5f00-4ad3-ca359017009f"

size: 22077072 bytes

size: 4425660 bytes

Lets update the device using the patch file.

mix upload --firmware /path/to/test_patch/_build/rpi0_dev/nerves/images/patch.fw

The size difference between the Target output firmware size 22077072 and the patched firmware size 4425660 has a pretty significant size reduction. For such a small change, we might expect more. A lot of this size come from the files that are also included in the firmware that are not currently being patched such as the Linux kernel and other files that do not change frequently. We anticipate that all other files will offer similar support, but we started with the first most impactful file, the SquashFS root filesystem, so we can begin testing this workflow using devices.

Nerves package environment variables

Packages can provide custom system environment variables to be exported when Nerves.Env.bootstrap/0 is called. The initial use case for this feature is to export system specific information for llvm-based tools. Here is an example from nerves_system_rpi0

  defp nerves_package do
      # ...
      env: [
        {"TARGET_ARCH", "arm"},
        {"TARGET_CPU", "arm1176jzf_s"},
        {"TARGET_OS", "linux"},
        {"TARGET_ABI", "gnueabi"}
      # ...