Nerves requires a number of programs on your system to work. These include Erlang, Elixir, and a few tools for packaging firmware images. Nerves is actively used on MacOS and various Linux distributions. For Windows users, some people have had success running Linux in a virtual machine or using the Windows Subsystem for Linux available in Windows 10. If you have issues with any of the tooling after following the steps below, we recommend you reach out to us in the #nerves channel on the Elixir Slack.
Nerves requires that the Erlang version running on your development host be
compatible with the Erlang version on the embedded target and also depends on
features added in recent versions of Elixir (
>= 1.7.0). Because it can be hard
to manage these tool versions with sufficient granularity using operating system
packages, it is recommended that you use ASDF
to manage Erlang and Elixir installations. This tool works the same on its
supported platforms, so you'll find more details in the All Platforms section
The easiest installation route on MacOS is to use Homebrew. Just run the following:
brew update brew install fwup squashfs coreutils xz pkg-config
If you've already installed Erlang & Elixir using Homebrew, you'll need to uninstall them to avoid clashes with the recommended ASDF installation.
brew uninstall elixir brew uninstall erlang
Optionally, if you want to build custom Nerves Systems, you'll also need to install Docker for Mac. After installing Docker for Mac, you will likely want to adjust the resource limits imposed on Docker, to allow it to successfully compile more complicated custom systems. Click the Docker icon in the top menu bar, then click Preferences > Advanced and allow Docker to use all of your CPUs and as much RAM as you think is reasonable for your machine (at least 6 GB). The more resources it has access to, the faster you can compile a custom Nerves system.
Now skip to the instructions for all platforms below.
Nerves on Windows 10 requires version 18917 (or later) with Windows Subsystem for Linux 2 (WSL2) installed. See the WSL2 install instructions for more information. Once you have WSL2 support enabled you will need to install an instance of Linux. We recommend installing Ubuntu.
Next, follow the instructions for Linux inside your WSL2 Linux installation to finish setting up the environment.
Finally, you'll need to install
fwup using Chocolatey. See the chocolatey
install guide for help installing Chocolatey on
your system. With Chocolatey installed, run the following from a Powershell:
choco install fwup /y
When running on WSL2, Nerves uses the Linux version of
fwup for building the
firmware files and the Windows version of
fwup for burning firmware to SD
cards. It is important that you install
fwup in both environments.
First, install a few packages using your package manager:
sudo apt install build-essential automake autoconf git squashfs-tools ssh-askpass pkg-config curl
yay -S base-devel ncurses5-compat-libs openssh-askpass git squashfs-tools curl
If you're curious,
squashfs-tools will be used by Nerves to create root
ssh-askpass will be used to ask for passwords when writing to
MicroSD cards. Some Fedora and Manjaro users have reported that they had to create a symlink
Next, install the
fwup utility. Nerves uses
fwup to create, distribute, and
install firmware images. You can install
fwup using the instructions found at
Installation Page. Installing the
.rpm files is recommended.
If you want to build custom Nerves Systems, you need a few more build tools. If you skip this step, you'll get an error message with instructions if you ever need to build a custom system. On Debian and Ubuntu, run the following:
sudo apt install libssl-dev libncurses5-dev bc m4 unzip cmake python
For other host Linux distributions, you will need to install equivalent packages, but we don't have the exact list documented. If you'd like to help out, send us an improvement to this page and let us know what worked for you!
Now continue to the instructions for all platforms below.
First, install the required versions of Erlang/OTP and Elixir. We highly recommend using ASDF since the versions in use will be under your control. See the ASDF docs for official documentation.
IMPORTANT: Elixir 1.11.0 and 1.11.1 do not work with Nerves. Elixir 1.11.2 and later are fine. Elixir 1.10.x also works.
Here's a summary of the install process:
git clone https://github.com/asdf-vm/asdf.git ~/.asdf --branch v0.8.0 # The following steps are for bash. If you’re using something else, do the # equivalent for your shell. echo -e '\n. $HOME/.asdf/asdf.sh' >> ~/.bashrc echo -e '\n. $HOME/.asdf/completions/asdf.bash' >> ~/.bashrc # optional source ~/.bashrc # for zsh based systems run the following echo -e '\n. $HOME/.asdf/asdf.sh' >> ~/.zshrc echo -e '\n. $HOME/.asdf/completions/asdf.bash' >> ~/.zshrc source ~/.zshrc asdf plugin-add erlang asdf plugin-add elixir # Note #1: # If on Debian or Ubuntu, you'll want to install wx before running the next line: # sudo apt install libwxgtk3.0-dev # for arch based systems run the next line: # yay -S wxgtk2 fop jdk-openjdk unzip # Note #2: # It's possible to use different Erlang and Elixir versions with Nerves. The # latest official Nerves systems are compatible with the versions below. In # general, differences in patch releases are harmless. Nerves detects # configurations that might not work at compile time. asdf install erlang 23.3.1 asdf install elixir 1.11.4-otp-23 asdf global erlang 23.3.1 asdf global elixir 1.11.4-otp-23
It is important to update the versions of
rebar used by Elixir,
even if you already had Elixir installed.
mix local.hex mix local.rebar
If you have your own version of
rebar in your path, be sure that it is
You can now add the
nerves_bootstrap archive to your Mix environment. This
archive allows Nerves to bootstrap the Mix environment, ensuring that your code
is properly compiled using the right cross-compiler for the target. The
nerves_bootstrap archive also includes a project generator, which you can use
to create new Nerves projects. To install the
mix archive.install hex nerves_bootstrap