# View Source Calculations

Calculations in Ash allow for displaying complex values as a top level value of a resource.

## Declaring calculations on a resource

### Expression Calculations

The simplest kind of calculation refers to an Ash expression. For example:

``````calculations do
calculate :full_name, :string, expr(first_name <> " " <> last_name)
end``````

See the Expressions guide for more.

### Module Calculations

When calculations require more complex code or can't be pushed down into the data layer, a module that uses `Ash.Resource.Calculation` can be used.

``````defmodule Concat do
# An example concatenation calculation, that accepts the delimiter as an argument,
#and the fields to concatenate as options
use Ash.Resource.Calculation

# Optional callback that verifies the passed in options (and optionally transforms them)
@impl true
def init(opts) do
if opts[:keys] && is_list(opts[:keys]) && Enum.all?(opts[:keys], &is_atom/1) do
{:ok, opts}
else
{:error, "Expected a `keys` option for which keys to concat"}
end
end

@impl true
# A callback to tell Ash what keys must be loaded/selected when running this calculation
# you can include related data here, but be sure to include the attributes you need from said related data
# i.e `posts: [:title, :body]`.
def load(_query, opts, _context) do
opts[:keys]
end

@impl true
def calculate(records, opts, %{separator: separator}) do
Enum.map(records, fn record ->
Enum.map_join(opts[:keys], separator, fn key ->
to_string(Map.get(record, key))
end)
end)
end

# You can implement this callback to make this calculation possible in the data layer
# *and* in elixir. Ash expressions are already executable in Elixir or in the data layer, but this gives you fine grain control over how it is done
# @impl true
# def expression(opts, context) do
# end
end

# Usage in a resource
calculations do
calculate :full_name, :string, {Concat, keys: [:first_name, :last_name]} do
# You need to use the [allow_empty?: true, trim?: false] constraints here.
# The separator could be an empty string or require a leading or trailing space,
# but would be trimmed or even set to `nil` without the constraints shown below.
argument :separator, :string do
allow_nil? false
constraints [allow_empty?: true, trim?: false]
default ""
end
end
end``````

See the documentation for the calculations section in Resource DSL docs and the `Ash.Resource.Calculation` docs for more information.

The calculations declared on a resource allow for declaring a set of named calculations that can be used by extensions. They can also be loaded in the query using `Ash.Query.load/2`, or after the fact using `Ash.load/3`. Calculations declared on the resource will be keys in the resource's struct.

## Custom calculations in the query

Example:

``````User
|> Ash.Query.calculate(:full_name, {Concat, keys: [:first_name, :last_name]}, :string, %{separator: ","})``````

See the documentation for `Ash.Query.calculate/4` for more information.

## Arguments in calculations

Using the above example with arguments, you can load a calculation with arguments like so:

``load(full_name: [separator: ","])``

If the calculation uses an expression, you can also filter and sort on it like so:

``````query
|> Ash.Query.filter(full_name(separator: " ") == "Zach Daniel")
|> Ash.Query.sort(full_name: {%{separator: " "}, :asc})``````