View Source README

If you found the precompiled binaries do not suit your needs (e.g., perhaps you need OpenCV to be compiled with FFmpeg to handle more video formats), it's possible to override the behaviour by setting the environment variable EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED to false, and then please delete _build/${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision and recompile evision

Also, for Linux users only, the precompiled binary is not compiled with GTK support, therefore functions like Evision.HighGui.imshow/2 will not work. However, you can either use Evision.Wx.imshow/2 (if Erlang on your system is compiled with wxWidgets), or set the environment variable EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED to false so that OpenCV can detect available HighGui backend when compiling from source.

evision [WIP]

OSArchABIBuild StatusHas Precompiled Library
Linuxx86_64gnuCIYes
Linuxx86_64muslCIYes
Linuxarm64gnulinux-precompileYes
Linuxarm64musllinux-precompileYes
Linuxarmv7l (armhf)gnueabihflinux-precompileYes
Linuxppc64legnulinux-precompileYes
Linuxs390xgnulinux-precompileYes
Linuxriscv64gnulinux-precompileYes
Linuxriscv64musllinux-precompileYes
macOS 11 Big Surx86_64darwinCIYes
macOS 11 Big Surarm64darwinmacos-precompileYes
Windows 2022x86_64msvcCIYes

docs

Docs

Online docs for the latest released version is available on Hex.pm, https://hexdocs.pm/evision/.

nerves-support

Nerves Support

Nerves

Prebuilt firmwares are available here. Select the most recent run and scroll down to the Artifacts section, download the firmware file for your board and run

fwup /path/to/the/downloaded/firmware.fw

In the nerves build, evision is integrated as one of the dependencies of the nerves_livebook project. This means that you can use livebook (as well as other pre-pulled libraries) to explore and evaluate the evision project.

The default password of the livebook is nerves (as the time of writing, if it does not work, please check the nerves_livebook project).

integration-with-nx

Integration with Nx

iex> mat = Evision.imread("/path/to/image.png")
%Evision.Mat{
  channels: 3,
  dims: 2,
  type: {:u, 8},
  raw_type: 16,
  shape: {512, 512, 3},
  ref: #Reference<0.2992585850.4173463580.172624>
}

iex> t = Evision.Mat.to_nx(mat)
#Nx.Tensor<
  u8[512][512][3]
  Evision.Backend
  [
    [
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, 255],
      [255, 255, ...],
      ...
    ],
    ...
  ]
>

and vice-versa:

iex> %Evision.Mat{} = mat = Evision.imread("/path/to/image.png")
iex> t = Evision.Mat.to_nx(mat)
# convert a tensor to a mat
iex> mat_from_tensor = Evision.Mat.from_nx(t)
%Evision.Mat{
  channels: 1,
  dims: 3,
  type: {:u, 8},
  raw_type: 0,
  shape: {512, 512, 3},
  ref: #Reference<0.1086574232.1510342676.18186>
}

# Note that `Evision.Mat.from_nx` gives a tensor
# however, some OpenCV functions expect the mat
# to be a "valid 2D image"
# therefore, in such cases `Evision.Mat.from_nx_2d`
# should be used instead
#
# Noticing the changes in `channels`, `dims` and `raw_type`
iex> mat_from_tensor = Evision.Mat.from_nx_2d(t)
%Evision.Mat{
  channels: 3,
  dims: 2,
  type: {:u, 8},
  raw_type: 16,
  shape: {512, 512, 3},
  ref: #Reference<0.1086574232.1510342676.18187>
}

# and it works for tensors with any shapes
iex> t = Nx.iota({2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3}, type: :s32)
iex> mat = Evision.Mat.from_nx(t)
%Evision.Mat{
  channels: 1,
  dims: 6,
  type: {:s, 32},
  raw_type: 4,
  shape: {2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3},
  ref: #Reference<0.1086574232.1510342676.18188>
}

Unsupported Type Map

As OpenCV does not support the following types (yet, as of OpenCV 4.6.0)

  • {:s, 64}
  • {:u, 32}
  • {:u, 64}

Although it's possible to store values with those types using custom types, the resulting Mat/tensor will be incompatible with most existing functions in OpenCV.

Moreover, it's somewhat inconvinient to explicitly specify the type each time using them. Therefore, Evision allows to set a map for those unsupported types.

config :evision, unsupported_type_map: %{
  {:s, 64} => {:f, 64},
  {:u, 64} => {:f, 64},
  {:u, 32} => {:f, 32}
}

The key of this unsupported_type_map is the unsupported type, and the value is the replacement type for it.

See this reply for more details on this.

examples

Examples

Some examples are available in the examples directory.

description

Description

evision will pull OpenCV source code from GitHub, then parse and automatically generate corresponding OpenCV-Elixir bindings.

This project uses and modifies gen2.py and hdr_parser.py from the python module in the OpenCV repo so that they output header files that can be used in Elixir bindings.

We hope this project can largely reduce the work of manually porting OpenCV functions/modules to Elixir.

Compatible OpenCV versions:

  • 4.5.3
  • 4.5.4
  • 4.5.5
  • 4.6.0

by compatible, it means these versions can compile successfully, and I tested a small range of functions. Tons of tests should be written, and then we can have a list for tested OpenCV versions.

installation

Installation

In order to use evision, you will need Elixir installed. Then create an Elixir project via the mix build tool:

$ mix new my_app

Then you can add evision as dependency in your mix.exs.

def deps do
  [
    {:evision, "~> 0.1.21"}
  ]
end

Please note that although :evision is available on hex.pm now, it's still in its early versions. And it will remain on v0.1.x for a while, and all v0.1.x versions should be treated as in very active development. Please read the CHANGELOG.md for all breaking changes even it's a "minor" update.

Therefore, it's recommended to use a specific version (i.e., include the minor version number in deps, {:evision, "~> 0.1.8"}, instead of {:evision, "~> 0.1"}) at the moment.

use-precompiled-library-default

Use Precompiled Library (Default)

The following environment variables can be set based on your needs.

(Note that precompiled binaries do not use FFmpeg. If you'd like to use FFmpeg, please compile from source (please see instructions in the next section) and set corresponding environment variables. We're considering this option at the moment.)

Important notes

It is recommended to use :evision from hex.pm. Currently "0.1.7" to "0.1.9", and "0.1.11" to "0.1.21" are available on hex.pm,

def deps do
  [
    {:evision, "~> 0.1.21"}
  ]
end

TARGET_ABI

# required if and only if the build target is using musl libc.
#
# (for nerves project, this environment variable is set by nerves)
export TARGET_ABI=musl
## (for armv7l which uses hard-float ABI (armhf))
export TARGET_ABI=musleabihf

The default value for the TARGET_ABI env var is obtained using the following elixir code

target_abi = List.last(String.split(to_string(:erlang.system_info(:system_architecture)), "-"))
target_abi =
  case target_abi do
    "darwin" <> _ -> "darwin"
    "win32" ->
      {compiler_id, _} = :erlang.system_info(:c_compiler_used)
      case compiler_id do
        :msc -> "msvc"
        _ -> to_string(compiler_id)
      end
    _ -> target_abi
  end

EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED

# optional. 
# set this to "false" if you prefer :evision to be compiled from source
# 
# default value is "true", and :evision will prefer to use precompiled binaries (if available)
export EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED=false

If you found the precompiled binaries do not suit your needs (e.g., perhaps you need OpenCV to be compiled with FFmpeg to handle more video formats.), it's possible to override the behaviour by setting the environment variable EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED to false, and then please delete _build/${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision and recompile evision

Also, for Linux users only, the precompiled binary is not compiled with GTK support, therefore functions like Evision.HighGui.imshow/2 will not work. However, you can either use Evision.Wx.imshow/2 (if Erlang on your system is compiled with wxWidgets), or set the environment variable EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED to false so that OpenCV can detect available HighGui backend when compiling from source.

export EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED=false

For livebook users,

Mix.install([
  {:evision, "~> 0.1.21"}
], system_env: [
  {"EVISION_PREFER_PRECOMPILED", "false"}
])

EVISION_PRECOMPILED_CACHE_DIR

# optional.
## set the cache directory for the precompiled archive file
export EVISION_PRECOMPILED_CACHE_DIR="$(pwd)/.cache"

compile-evision-from-source

Compile evision from source

Dependencies

  • Python3 (Only during the compilation, to generate binding files)

    Tested Python versions (on ubuntu:20.04, see workflow file):

    • 3.6.15
    • 3.7.12
    • 3.8.12
    • 3.9.9
    • 3.10.1
  • CMake >= 3.3 (for this project)

    The minimal version required by OpenCV can vary between versions.

    OpenCV 4.5.5 requires at least CMake 3.5.1.

  • Erlang development library/headers. Tested on OTP/25.

Build from source

To obtain and compile OpenCV's source code from official releases, the following environment variables can affect the build

# optional
## set OpenCV version
##   the corresponding license file should be available at https://github.com/opencv/opencv/blob/${OPENCV_VER}/LICENSE
export OPENCV_VER="4.6.0"

# optional
## Use Debug build
export CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug

# optional
## enable FFmpeg
##   this will allow cmake to auto-detect FFmpeg libraries installed on the host
##   on Windows, OpenCV will download prebuilt FFmpeg libraries
##   for more information, please visit https://github.com/opencv/opencv/tree/4.x/3rdparty/ffmpeg
export CMAKE_OPENCV_OPTIONS="-D WITH_FFMPEG=ON"
## or disable FFmpeg
export CMAKE_OPENCV_OPTIONS="-D WITH_FFMPEG=OFF"

Note 1: OpenCV can encode and decode some video formats (varies depending on your system). FFmpeg can be used to encode/decode more video formats.

However, you should be aware of the license of the FFmpeg components you selected as they could be licensed by LGPL/GPL or other licenses.

Note 2: FFmpeg 5 is not supported by OpenCV yet (as of OpenCV 4.6.0).

sudo apt install -y libavcodec-dev libavformat-dev libavutil-dev libswscale-dev libavresample-dev ffmpeg

on macOS

brew install ffmpeg@4
brew link ffmpeg@4
Extra notes for building from source on Windows

Evision on Windows uses nmake to handle the Makefile.win at the moment. And we also need powershell for now. nmake should be included in Microsoft Visual Studio, and powershell should be included in almost all recent versions (it was first released in 2007) of Windows.

If ninja can be found in %PATH%, then we will prefer using ninja to build everything as it allows parallel building.

Evision is NOT tested in MSYS2, Cygwin, or WSL/WSL2.

Using source from a git repo (Optional)

It's also possible to obtain and compile OpenCV's source code from a custom git repo by setting the following environment variables (in addition to the ones above)

# required if and only if you prefer to compile OpenCV from a git repo
# set OPENCV_USE_GIT_HEAD to true to compile OpenCV from a git repo
# default value is false
export OPENCV_USE_GIT_HEAD=true

# required if and only if you prefer to compile OpenCV from a git repo
# this env var indicates which branch you prefer to use
# no default value
export OPENCV_USE_GIT_BRANCH=4.x

# optional.
# set this env var to specify which git repo to use
# default value is https://github.com/opencv/opencv.git, which is the official git repo of OpenCV
export OPENCV_GIT_REPO="https://github.com/opencv/opencv.git"

When OPENCV_USE_GIT_HEAD is set to true, the following command will be used to fetch OpenCV's source code in Makefile:

git clone --branch=${OPENCV_USE_GIT_BRANCH} --depth=1 ${OPENCV_GIT_REPO} "${OPENCV_DIR}"

More Configuration (Optional)

evision will compile a subset of OpenCV functionality. You can configure the enabled modules in your config files:

config :evision, enabled_modules: [
  :calib3d,
  :core,
  :features2d,
  :flann,
  :highgui,
  :imgcodecs,
  :imgproc,
  :ml,
  :photo,
  :stitching,
  :ts,
  :video,
  :videoio,
  :dnn
]

If a module is not specified in :enabled_modules, it may still be compiled if all requirements are present in your machine. You can enforce only the :enabled_modules to be compiled by changing the compilation mode:

config :evision, :compile_mode, :only_enabled_modules

You can also configure the list of image codecs used:

config :evision, enabled_img_codecs: [
  :png,
  :jpeg,
  :tiff,
  :webp,
  :openjpeg,
  :jasper,
  :openexr
]

Notes

  • How do I use my own OpenCV source code on my local disk?

      # To skip the download process, you can put the source zip file at `3rd_party/cache/opencv-${OPENCV_VER}.zip`.
      # Or you could supply OpenCV source code at `3rd_party/opencv/opencv-${OPENCV_VER}`.
      #
      # `3rd_party/opencv/opencv-${OPENCV_VER}` is the default value for `OPENCV_DIR`
      export OPENCV_DIR=/path/to/your/opencv/source/root
    
  • How do I use my own OpenCV source code on my git repo?

      # use branch
      export OPENCV_USE_GIT_BRANCH="branch_name"
      export OPENCV_GIT_REPO="https://github.com/username/opencv.git"
    
      # use HEAD
      export OPENCV_USE_GIT_HEAD=true
      export OPENCV_GIT_REPO="https://github.com/username/opencv.git"
    
  • How do I set the number of jobs for compiling?

      # use all logical cores, by default
      # `"-j#{System.schedulers_online()}"`. In `mix.exs`.
      export MAKE_BUILD_FLAGS="-j$(nproc)"
      
      # use 2 cores
      export MAKE_BUILD_FLAGS="-j2"
    
  • How do I set up for cross-compile or specify the toolchain?

      export CMAKE_TOOLCHAIN_FILE="/path/to/toolchain.cmake"
    
  • How do I make my own adjustments to the OpenCV CMake options?

      export CMAKE_OPENCV_OPTIONS="YOUR CMAKE OPTIONS FOR OPENCV"
    
  • How do I generate binding code for erlang and Elixir at the same time? Yes, but currently it's only possible to do so when compiling evision using mix.

      # default value is `elixir` when compiling evision using `mix`
      # default value is `erlang` when compiling evision using `rebar`
      #
      # expected format is a comma-separated string
      export EVISION_GENERATE_LANG="erlang,elixir"
    
  • Which ones of OpenCV options are supposed to be specified in config/config.exs?

    1. Enabled and disabled OpenCV modules
    2. Image codecs (if you enabled related OpenCV modules).

Debug related

Say you have the following MIX environment variables:

# set by MIX
MIX_ENV=dev
# set by evision or you
OPENCV_VER=4.6.0
# set by yourself if you're compiling evision to a nerves firmware
MIX_TARGET=rpi4
  • How do I delete OpenCV related CMake build caches?

      # delete OpenCV related CMake build caches.
      rm -rf "_build/${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision/cmake_opencv_${OPENCV_VER}"
      ## for nerves
      rm -rf "_build/${MIX_TARGET}_${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision/cmake_opencv_${OPENCV_VER}"
    
  • How do I remove downloaded OpenCV source zip file.

      rm -f "3rd_party/cache/opencv-${OPENCV_VER}"
    
  • Can I manually edit the generated files and compile them?

    1. First, delete evision.so (so that cmake can rebuild it)

       # 
       rm -f "_build/${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision/priv/evision.so"
       ## if you're building with nerves,
       ## use this path instead
       rm -rf "_build/${MIX_TARGET}_${MIX_ENV}/lib/evision/priv/evision.so"
      
    2. Secondly, comment out the following lines in the CMakeLists.txt

    otherwise, your editing will be overwritten by the py_src/gen2.py (executing from the CMakeLists.txt)

      if(WIN32)
          execute_process(COMMAND "rmdir ${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR} /s /q && rmdir ${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR} /s /q  && mkdir ${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR} && mkdir ${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR}")
          message("enabled modules: ${ENABLED_CV_MODULES}")
          execute_process(COMMAND python3.exe "${PY_SRC}\\gen2.py" "${C_SRC}" "${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR}" "${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR}" "${C_SRC}\\headers.txt" "${EVISION_GENERATE_LANG}" "${ENABLED_CV_MODULES}" RESULT_VARIABLE STATUS)
      else()
          execute_process(COMMAND bash -c "rm -rf ${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR} && rm -rf ${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR} && mkdir -p ${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR} && mkdir -p ${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR}")
          message("enabled modules: ${ENABLED_CV_MODULES}")
          execute_process(COMMAND bash -c "python3 ${PY_SRC}/gen2.py ${C_SRC} ${GENERATED_ELIXIR_SRC_DIR} ${GENERATED_ERLANG_SRC_DIR} ${C_SRC}/headers.txt ${EVISION_GENERATE_LANG} ${ENABLED_CV_MODULES}" RESULT_VARIABLE STATUS)
      endif()
      if(STATUS STREQUAL "0")
          message(STATUS "Successfully generated binding code for: ${EVISION_GENERATE_LANG}")
      else()
          message(FATAL_ERROR "Failed to generate binding code for: ${EVISION_GENERATE_LANG}")
      endif()
    1. Then you can edit the source files and recompile evision.so.
      mix compile
    

Runtime related

  • How do I enable debug logging for OpenCV (prints to stderr).

      export OPENCV_EVISION_DEBUG=1
    

acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • gen2.py, hdr_parser.py and c_src/erlcompat.hpp were directly copied from the python module in the OpenCV repo. Changes applied.
  • Makefile, CMakeLists.txt and c_src/nif_utils.hpp were also copied from the torchx module in the elixir-nx repo. Minor changes applied.